Revelation Bible Study Questions


Prologue and Greeting; Revelation 1:1-8

1) Who are we told that this revelation is from? (vs 1)


2) What is the reason for this revelation? (vs 1)


3) How was the revelation made known? (vs 1-2)


4) Who is called blessed and why (vs 3)


5) Who is the author of this revelation? (vs 4)


6) Who is this written to? (vs 4)


7) How does John describe God the Father, in his greeting? (vs 4)


8) Who the second part of the greeting from? (vs 4)


9) How does John describe Jesus in the greeting? (vs 5)


10) What does John say that Jesus has done for us? (vs 5)


11) Why has Jesus loved us and freed us from sin? (vs 8)


12) What does John say about Jesus (vs 7)


13) What does God say that He is? (vs 8) (see note 1)


14 How does God describe Himself? (vs 8) (see note 2)


John’s Vision of Christ;  Revelation 1:9-20

1) What does John call himself? (vs 9)


2) Where is John writing from and why? (vs 9)


3) What day does John say this takes place? (vs 10)


4) What does John tell us about himself? (vs 10)


5) How does John describe the voice? (vs 10)

6) What does the voice tell John to do? (vs 11)


7) What does John see when he turns around? (vs 12)


8) Who was among the lampstands? (vs 12)


9) How is this person dressed? (vs 13)


10) How does John describe his hair? (vs 14)


11) How does he describe his eyes? (vs 14)


12) How does John describe his feet? (vs 15)


13) How does John describe his voice? (vs15)


14) What does this person hold in his right hand? (vs 16)


15) What is coming out of his mouth? (vs 16)


16) How does John describe his face? (vs 16)


17) What does John do when he sees this person? (vs 17)


18) What does the person do and say to John? (vs 17)


19) Who does this person say that he is? (vs 18)


20) What does he say about death and life? (vs 18)


21) What does he say he holds? (vs 18)


22) What does he tell John to write? (vs 19)


23) What does he say the seven stars represent? (vs 20) (see note 3)



24) What do the seven lampstands represent? (vs 20)


To the Church in Ephesus; Revelation 2:1-7

1) Who is John told to write to? (vs 2) (see note 4 )

2) Who are these the words of? (vs 1)


3) What does he say about how the messenger has lived? (vs 2)


4) What does Jesus say the messenger has not tolerated? (vs 2)


5) What does Jesus say about false apostles?  (vs 2)


6) What does Jesus say they have done in his name? (vs 3)


7) What does Jesus say that he holds against them? (vs 4)


8) What does Jesus ask them to consider? (vs 5)


9) What does Jesus command them to do? (vs 5)


10) What does Jesus say he will do if they do not repent? (vs 5)


11) What does Jesus say they have in their favor? (vs 6) (see note 5)


12) Who is told to listen and to whom? (vs 7)


13) What will be given to the victorious? (vs 7)


To the Church in Smyrna;  Revelation 2:8-11

1) Who is this written to? (vs 8) (see note 6)


2) Who are these the words of? (vs 8)


3) What does Jesus say he knows about them? (vs 9)


4) What does Jesus say that they are? (vs 9)


5) Who does Jesus say is slandering them? (vs 9)


6) What does Jesus tell them not to be afraid of? (vs 10)


7) What does Jesus say the devil will do and for how long? ( vs 10)


8) What does Jesus tell them to do? (vs 10)

9) What will they receive if they remain faithful? (vs 10)


10) Who are people with ears to listen to? (vs 11)


11) What does Jesus say about those who are victorious? (vs 11)


To the Church at Pergamum; Revelation 2: 12-17

1) Who is this written to? (vs 12) (see note 7)


2) Who are these the words of? (vs 12)


3) What does Jesus say about where they live? (vs 13)


4) What does Paul say that he has against some of them? (vs 14)


5) What teaching is in the church at Pergamum? ( vs 15)(See note 8)


6) What is the messenger told to do? (vs 16)


7) What will happen if the messenger does not repent? (vs 16)

8) Who is told to hear these words? (vs 17)


9) What will happens to him who overcomes? (vs 17)


10) What else will the overcomer receive? (vs 17) (see note 9)



To the church at Thyatira Revelation 2:18-28

1) Who is this written to? (vs 18) (see note 10)


2) Who are these the words of? (vs 18)


3) How is Jesus described? (vs 18)


4) What does Jesus say that he knows about them? (vs 19)


5) What does Jesus have against them? (vs 20) (See note11)


6) What is this Jezebel teaching? (vs 20)


7) What does Jesus say that he has done? (vs 21)

8) What does Jesus say that he is going to do to her? (vs 22)


9) What is Jesus going to do with those who sin with her? (vs 22)


10) What is Jesus going to do to her children? (vs 23)


11) Why does Jesus say he is going to do this? (vs 23)


12) What does Jesus say to those who have not followed this Jezebel? (vs 24)


13) What does Jesus tell them to do? (vs 25)


14) What is Jesus going to give to them who overcome and do his will? (vs 26)


15) What does Jesus quote them from Isaiah? (vs 27)


16) Who does Jesus say this passage is talking about? (vs 27)


17) What else does Jesus say that he will give the overcomer? (vs 28) ( see note 12)


18) What does Jesus tell them to do? (vs 29)


To the Church at Sardis;  Revelation 3:1-6

1) Who is this letter written to? (vs 1) (see note 13)


2) Who is this from? (vs 1)


3) What does Jesus say he knows about them? (vs 1)


4) What does Jesus say that their reputation is? (vs 1)


5) What does Jesus say that they really are? (vs 1)


6) What does Jesus tell them to do? (vs 2)


7) What does Jesus say about their deeds? (vs 2)


8) What does Jesus tell them to do? (vs 3)


9) What does Jesus say will happen if they do not repent? (vs 4)

10) What does Jesus say there are a few of in Sardis? (vs 4)


11) What does Jesus say these people will do? (vs 4)


12) Why does Jesus say they will walk with him? (vs 4)


13) What will happen to those who overcome? (vs 5)


14) What does Jesus say he will never do? (vs 5)


15) What does Jesus say he will do? (vs 5)


16) What does Jesus tell them to do? (vs 6)


To the Church at Philadelphia; Revelation 3:7-13

1) Who is this written to? (vs 7) (see note 14)


2) Who are these the words of? (vs 7)


3) What does Jesus tells them he holds? (vs 7) (see note 15)

4) What does Jesus says the key does? (vs 7)


5) What does Jesus say he knows about them? (vs 8)


6) What does Jesus say that he has placed before them? (vs 8)


7) What does Jesus say about their strength? (vs 8)


8) Who does Jesus say are of the synagogue of Satan? (vs 9) (see note 16)


9) What will God make these false Jews do? (vs 9)


10) What does Jesus say that they have done? (vs 10)


11) What does Jesus say that he will do for them? (vs 10)


12) What does Jesus tell them about his coming? (vs 11)


13) What does Jesus tell them to do? (vs 11)


14) What does Jesus say he make those who overcome? (vs 12)


15) What will Jesus write on the overcomer? (vs 12)


16) What does Jesus tell them to do? (vs 13)


To the church at Laodicea; Revelation 3:14-22

1) Who is this written to? (vs 14)


2) Who are these the words of? (vs 14)


3) How is Jesus Described here? (vs 14)


4) What does Jesus say about them? (vs 15)


5) What does Jesus say he wishes they were? (vs 15)


6) What does Jesus say that he is going to do and why? (vs 16)


7) What does Jesus say that they are saying? (vs 17)

8) What does Jesus say that they really are? (vs 17)


9) What is the first thing Jesus tells them they should buy from him and why? (vs 18)


10) What is the second thing that Jesus tells them that they should buy from him and why? (vs 18)


11) What is the third thing that Jesus says they should buy from him and why? (vs 18)


12) Who does Jesus say that he loves and disciplines? (vs 19)


13) What does Jesus tell them to do? (vs 19)


14) What does Jesus tell them he is doing? (vs 20)


15) What will Jesus do if people let him in? (vs 20)


16) Who will get the right to sit with Jesus on his throne? (vs 21)


17) What does Jesus compare this to? (vs 21)


18) Who should listen to these words? (vs 22)


The Throne in Heaven; Revelations 4:1-11  (Note 18)

1) What does John see? (vs 1)


2) What does John hear? (vs 1)


3) What does the voice say to John? (vs 1)


4) What does John say happens to him? (vs 2)


5) What does John see? (vs 2)


6) How does John describe the one sitting on the throne? (vs 3) (Note 19)


7) What encircles the throne? (vs 3) (Note 20)


8) What was surrounding the throne? (vs 4)


9) Who were seated on the 24 thrones? (vs 4) (Note 21)

10) How are the elders dressed? (vs 4)


11) What was coming from the throne? (vs 5) (Note 22)


12) What are before the throne and what do they represent? (vs 5)


13) What else does John see before the throne? (vs 6) (Note 23)


14) What do the four living creatures have all over them? (vs 6)


15) What do the four creatures look like? (vs 7) (Note 24)


16) What do each of the creatures have? (vs 8)


17) What were the four creatures saying? (vs 8) (Note 25)


18) What happens when the four creatures sing? (vs 9-10)


19) What do the elders do and say? (vs 11)


The Scroll and the Lamb; Revelation 5:1-14

1) What does John see in the right hand of God? (vs 1) (Note 26)


2) What does the mighty angel ask? (vs 2)


3) Who is able to open the scroll? (vs 3)


4) What does John do and why? (vs 4)


5) Who does an elder tell John is able to open the scroll? (vs 5) (Note 27)


6) Why is he able to open the scroll? (vs 5)


7) What does John see? (vs 6) (Note 28)


8) What does the lamb look like? (vs 6) (Note 29)


9) What does the lamb do? (vs 7)


10) What happens when the Lamb takes the scroll? (vs 8)

11) What does each of the four creatures and elders have? (vs 8)


12) What kind of song do they sing? (vs 9)


13) Why is the Lamb worthy? (vs 9)


14) How were men purchased for God? (vs 9)


15) Where will the people of god come from? (vs 9)


16) What are the people of God made into? (vs 10) (Note 30)


17) What will the people of God do? (vs 10) (Note 31)


18) What does John hear and see? (vs 11) (Note 32)


19) What are the angels singing? (vs 12)


20) What does John hear next? (vs 13)


21) What does the four creatures say? (vs 14)


22) What do the elders do? (vs 14)


Opening Six of the Seals; Revelation 6:1-17

1) What does the lamb do? (vs 1)


2) What does one of the living creatures say to John? (vs 1)


3) What does John see? (vs 2) (Note 33)


4) What does the second living creature say to John? (vs 3)


5) What does John see when the second seal is opened? (vs 4)


6) What was the rider of the red horse given power to do? (vs 4) (note 34)


7) What does the third living creature say to John? (vs 5)


8) What does John see? (vs 5-6) (Note 35)

9) What does the fourth creature say to John? (vs7)


10) What does John see? (vs 8)


11) What is the name of the rider of the fourth horse? (vs 8)


12) What was following behind the fourth rider? (vs 8) (Note 36)


13) What portion of the earth will be killed? (vs 8)


14) How will these people be killed? (vs 8)


15) What does John see when the fifth seal is opened? (vs 9)


16) What do the people under the alter cry out? (vs 10) (note 37)


17) What are the people, under the altar, given? (vs  11)


18) What are the people under the altar told to wait for? (vs 11)


19) What happens to the earth when the sixth seal is opened? (vs 12)


20) What happens to the sun when the sixth seal is opened? (vs 12)


21 what happens to the stars and the moon when the sixth seal is opened? (vs 12-13)


22) What happens to the sky when the sixth seal is opened? (vs 14)


23) What happens to every island and mountain when the sixth seal is opened? (vs 14)


24) Who hides in caves? (vs 15)


25) What does these people call out to the mountains and the rocks? (vs 16)


26) Why do they cry out to be covered by rock and stone? (vs 17)


144,00 Sealed; Revelation 7:1-8

1) What does John next? (vs 1)


2 What are the four angels doing? (vs 1) (Note 38)


3) What does John see coming and from where? (vs 2) (Note 39)


4) What does the angel have? (vs 2) (Note 40)


5) What had the four angels been given power to do? (vs 2)


6) What does the angel from the east tell the four angels? (vs 3)


7) What is the number that are to be sealed? (vs 4-8) (Note 41)


The Great Multitude in White Robes; Revelation 7:9-17

1) What does John see in front of him? (vs 1)


2) What are these people wearing and holding? (vs 1) (Note 42)

3) What are these people crying out? (vs 10)


4) Who were standing around the throne? (vs 11)


5) What did the angels do? (vs 11)


6) What do the angels say? (vs 12)


7) What does one of the elders ask John? (vs 13)


8) How does John answer the elder? (vs 14)


9) What does the elder tell John? (vs 14) (Note 43)


10) What do the people in the white robes do? (vs 15)


11) What will God do for them? (vs 15)


12) What will not happen to them? (vs 16)


13) Who will be their shepherd? (vs 17)


14) What will the lamb lead them to? (vs 17)


15) What will God do for them? (vs 17)


The Seventh Seal and the Golden Censer; Revelation 8:1-5

1) What happens when the seventh seal is opened? (vs 1)


2) What are given to the seven angels that stand before God? (vs 2) (Note 44) (Note 45)


3) What does another angel do? (vs 3)


4) What is the incense for? (vs 4) (Note 46)


5) What does the angel do? (vs 5)

6) What happens when the angel throws the censer to the earth? (vs 5) (Note 47)


Sounding the seven Trumpets; Revelation 8:6-9:21

1) What do the seven angels do? (vs 6)


2) What happens when the first angel sounds his trumpet? (vs 7) (Note 48)


3) What happens to the earth? (vs 7)


4) What happens when the second angel sounds his trumpet? (vs 8)


5) What happens to the sea? (vs 8-9) (Note 49)


6) What happens when the third angel blows his trumpet? (vs 10)


7) What happens on the earth? (vs 10-11) (Note 50)


8) What is the name of the star? (vs 11) (Note 51)

9) What happens when the fourth angel blows his trumpet? (vs 12) (Note 52)


10) What does john hear and see? (vs 13)


11) What does the eagle say? (vs 13)


12) What does John see when the fifth angel blows his trumpet? (vs 9:1) (Note 53)


13) What is the star given? (vs 1) (Note 54)


14) What happens when the fallen star opens the Abyss? (vs 2)


13) What comes out of the smoke? (vs 3)


14) What are the locusts told not to harm? (vs 4)


15) What are the locusts allowed to harm? (vs 4)


16) What are the locusts not allowed to do and not do? (vs 5) (Note 55)


17) What will people seek to do during this time? (vs 6)


18) How does John describe the Locusts? (vs 7-10)


19) Who is king over the Locusts? (vs 11)


20) What is the name of the angel of the Abyss? (vs 11) (Note 56)


21) What is done and what is yet to come? (vs 12)


22) What happens when the sixth angel sounds his trumpet? (vs 13)


23) What does the voice from the alter say to the sixth angel? (vs 14)


24) What are the four angels to do? (vs 15) (Note 57)


25) How many horses were there? (vs 16)

26) What do the horses look like? (vs 16)


27) What comes out of the horses mouths? (vs 17)


28) How much of mankind is killed by the horses? (vs 18)


29) Where is the power of the horses? (vs 19)


30) How did those who were not killed respond? (vs 20-21)


The Angel and the Little Scroll; Revelation 10:1-11

1) How does John describe this angel? (vs 1) (note 58)


2) What is the angel holding? (vs 2)


3) Where does the angel stand? (vs 2)(Note 59)


4) What does the angel do? (vs 3)


5) When the angel shouts what speaks? (vs 3)

6) Why does John not write what the seven thunders have said? (vs 4)


7) What does the angel do? (vs 5) (Note 60)


8) Who does the angel swear by? (vs 6)


9) What does the angel say? (vs 6-7)


10) What does the voice from heaven tell John to do? (vs 8)


11) What does the angel tell John to do with the scroll? (vs 9) (Note 61)


12) What does the angel say that the scroll will do to John’s stomach? (vs 9-10) (Note 62)


13) What does the angel tell John the scroll will taste like? (vs 9-10) (Note 62)


14) What does the angel tell John that he must do? (vs 11)


The Two Witnesses;  Revelation 11:1-14

1) What is John given? (vs 1)

2) What is John told to measure? (vs 1) (Note 63)


3) What is John to exclude and why? (vs 2) (Note 64)


4) How long will the gentiles trample on Jerusalem? (vs 2) Note 65)


5) Who will God give power to? (vs 3) (Note 65)


6) What are the two witnesses compared to? (vs 4) (Note 66)


7) What happens to anyone who tries to harm these two witnesses? (vs 5)


8) What are these two given the power to do? (vs 6)


9) What is going to happen to these two witnesses and when? (vs 7) (Note 67)


10) What will happen to their bodies? (vs 8) (Note 68)


11) Where is this going to happen? (vs 8) (Note 69)


12) How long will they lay in the streets? (vs 9) (Note 68)


13) What will the people of the earth do because of the witnesses’ deaths? (vs 10)


14) What happens to the two witnesses after three and half days? (vs 11)


15) What happens after the two witnesses are resurrected? (vs 12) (Note 70)


16) What happens as the witnesses are taken to heaven? (vs 13)


17) What do the survivors of the earthquake do? (vs 13)


18) What has passed and what is to come? (vs 14)


The Seventh Trumpet; Revelation 11:15-19

1) What happens when the seventh angel sounds his trumpet? (vs 15)


2) What do the loud voices in heaven say? (vs 15) (Note 71)


3) What do the elders around the throne of God do? (vs 16)

4) Why do they give thanks to God? (vs 17)


5) What do the elders say has come from God? (vs 18)


6) What time do the elders say has come? (vs 18) (Note 72)


7) What is open for all to see? (vs 19)


8) What is in the temple? (vs 19) (Note 73)


9) What happens as the temple is opened for all to see? (vs 19)


The Woman and the Dragon;  Revelation 12:1-17

1) What is the great and wondrous sign that appears in heaven? (vs 1) (Note 74)


2) What does John tell us about the woman? (vs 2)


3) What is the second sign to appear in heaven? (vs 3) (Note 75)


4) What does the tail of the dragon do? (vs 4) (Note 76)


5) What does the dragon try to do? (vs 4) (Note 77)


6) What does the woman give birth to? (vs 5)


7) What are we told about this child? (vs 5)


8 What does God do to the child? (vs 5) (Note 78)


9) Where does the woman flee to? (vs 6) (Note 79)


10) How long is the woman taken care of by God? (vs 6) (Note 80)


11) What are we told happens in heaven? (vs 7) (Note 81)


12) Who wins the battle in heaven? (vs 8)


13) What happens to the dragon? (vs 9)


14 What does Satan do? (vs 9) (Note 82)


15) What does John hear from heaven? (vs 10) (Note 83)


16) What does the voice say has come? (vs 10)


17) Who has been hurled down? (vs 10) (Note 82)


18) How have the believers overcome Satan? (vs 11) (Note 84)


19) What did the believers not shrink from? (vs 11)


20) Who is called to rejoice? (vs 12)


21) Why is woe pronounced on the earth and the sea? (vs 12)


22) Why is Satan filled with fury? (vs 12)


23) What does the dragon do when he realizes he has been thrown to earth? (vs 13)


24) What is the woman given and why? (vs 14) (Note 85)


25) What comes from the mouth of the serpent? (vs 15) (Note 86)


26) What does the earth do? (vs 16)


27) How does the dragon respond? (vs 17) (Note 87)


28) Who does the dragon make war against? (vs 17)


The Beast Out of the Sea;  Revelation 13:1-10

1) Where does the dragon stand? (vs 1)


2) What comes out of the sea? (vs 1) (Note 88)

3) How many horns does the beast have? (vs 1) (Note 89)


4) How many heads does the beast have? (vs 1) (Note 90)


5) How many crowns does the beast have and where are they? (vs 1) (Note 91)


6) What is on each head? (vs 1) (note 92)


7) What does the beast, from the sea, look like? (vs 2) (Note 93)


8) What does the dragon give to the beast? (vs 2) (Note 94)


9) What does one of the heads of the beast seem to have? (vs 3) (Note 95)


10) What is the result of the healing of the wound? (vs 3)


11) Why do men worship the dragon? (vs 4) (Note 96)


12) What do men say about the beast? (vs 4) (note 97)


13) What is the beast given? (vs 5) (Note 98)


14) How long does the beast exercise authority? (vs 5) (Note 98)


15) What does the beast do with his mouth? (vs 6)


16) What is the beast given power to do? (vs 7) (Note 99)


17) Who is he give authority over? (vs 7) (Note 99)


18) Who will worship the beast? (vs 8) (Note 100)


19) What does John tell them to hear and understand? (vs 9-10) (Note 101)


The Beast Out of the Earth;  Revelation 13:11-18

1) Where does the second beast come from? (vs 11) (Note 102)

2) How is the second beast described? (vs 11) (Note 103)


3) What does the second beast do? (vs 12)


4) What does the second beast make the earth do? (vs 12)


5) What does the second beast perform? (vs 13) (Note 104)


6) How does the second beast deceive the people of the earth? (vs 14)


7) What does the second beast order the people of the earth to do? (vs 14) (Note 105)


8) What is the second beast given the power to do? (vs 15) (Note 106)


9) What happens to those who do not worship the beast? (vs 15) (Note 107)


10) What does the second beast force all people to receive? (vs 16) (Note 108)


11) What could you not do without the mark of the beast? (vs 17) (Note 109)


12) What is the mark of the beast? (vs 18) (Note 110)


The Lamb and the 144,000; Revelation 14:1-5

1) What does John see standing before him? (vs 1) (Note 111)


2) Who are standing with the Lamb and what make do they have on them? (vs 1) (Note 112)


3) What does John hear? (vs 2)


4) What are they singing? (vs 3) (Note 113)


5) Who were the only ones who could learn the song, and why? (vs 3)


6) What are we told the 144,000 did not do? (vs 4) (Note 114)


7) What do the 144,000 do in heaven? (vs 4)


8) Where did the 144,000 come from? (vs 4) (Note 115)


9) What are we told about the 144,000? (vs 5)

The Three Angels;  Revelation 14:6-13

1) What does John see? (vs 6)


2) What does the angel have? (vs 6) (Note 116)


3) What does the angel command the people to do? (vs 7)


4) Why are the people to fear God and give him glory? (vs 7)


5) How does the angel describe God? (vs 7)


6) What does the second angel say? (vs 8) (Note 117)


7) What does the angel say that Babylon did? (vs 8)


8) What does the third angel tell proclaim? (vs 9-10)


9) How does the angel describe God’s fury? (vs 10)


10) What does the angel say about their torment? (vs 11)

11) What are God’s people called to have? (vs 12)


12) What does John hear a voice from heaven say? (vs 13)


13) What does the Spirit say? (vs 13)


The Harvest of the Earth; Revelation14:14-20

1) What does John see in front of him? (vs 14) (Note 118)


2) Where does the second angel come from? (vs 15)


3) What does the second angel tell the one on the cloud to do? (vs 15) (Note 119)


4) What does the one seated on the cloud do? (vs 16)


5) What comes out of the temple in heaven? (vs 17)


6) Where does the next angel come from? (vs 18) (Note 120)


7) What does the angel, from the alter, tell the angel with the sickle to do? (vs 18)

8) What does the angel with the sickle do? (vs 19) (Note 121)


9) What happens to the grapes? (vs 20) (Note 122)


10) What happens when the grapes are trampled? (vs 20) (Note 123)


Pouring out the Seven Plagues; Revelation 15:1-8

1) What does John see next in heaven? (vs 1)


2) Why does John say they are called the “last”? (vs 1)


3) How does John describe the sea? (vs 2) (Note 124)


4) Who are standing next to the sea? (vs 2)


5) What are the people holding? (vs 2)


6) What are the people singing? (vs 3)


7) What does the song of the Lamb say about God’s deeds? (vs 3)

8) What does the Song of the Lamb say about God’s ways? (vs 3)


9) What does the Song of the Lamb say about the fear of God? (vs 4)


10) What does the Song of the Lamb say about bringing glory to the name of Lord? (vs 4)


11) What does the Song of the Lamb say about God’s holiness (vs 4)


12) What does the song of the Lamb say all nations will do? (vs 4)


13) What does the Song of the Lamb say has been revealed? (vs 4)


14) What does John look and see? (vs 5) (Note 126)


15) What comes out of the temple? (vs 6)


16) How are the angels dressed? (vs 6) (Note 127)


17) What does one of the four living creatures give to the seven angels? (vs 7)


18) What happens in the temple after the bowls are given to the seven angels? (vs 8) (Note 128)


19) What cannot be done until the seven plagues are complete? (vs 8)


The Seven Bowls of God’s Wrath; Revelation 16:1-21

1) What does a loud voice from the temple tell the angels to do? (vs 1)


2) What is the result of the first bowl being poured out? (vs 2) (Note 129)


3) What is the result of the second bowl being poured out? (vs 3) (Note 130)


4) What is the result of the third bowl being poured out? (vs 4) Note 130)


5) What does the angel in charge say about God’s judgement? (vs 5) (Note 131)


6) Why does the angel say that God’s judgement is just? (vs 6)


7) What response comes from the alter? (vs 7)


8) What does fourth anger do with its bowl? (vs 8)

9) What is the result of the pouring out of this bowl? (vs 8-9)


10) How do the people of the earth respond? (vs 9)


11) Where does the fifth angel pour out its bowl? (vs 10)


12) What happens to the kingdom of the beast? (vs 10) (Note 132)


13) How do people respond? (vs 10-11)


14) What does the sixth angel pour its bowl on? (vs 12) (Note 133)


15) What does John see come out of the mouth of the dragon, the beast, and the false prophet? (vs 13)


16) What are these evil spirits and what do they do? (vs 14)


17) When will this battle take place? (vs 14)


18) What do the words of Jesus remind us to do? (vs 15)


16) Who does Jesus say is blessed? (vs 15) (Note 134)


17) Where are the kings of the earth going to gather? (vs 16) (Note 135)


18) Where does the seventh angel pour out its bowl? (vs 17)


19) What does a loud voice from the throne say? (vs 17)


20 What happens after the voice speaks? (vs 18) (Note 136)


21) What happens to the great city? (vs 19) (Note 137)


22) What happens to the cities of the world? (vs 19)


23) What did God remember? (vs 19)


24) What happens to the islands and the mountains? (vs 20)


25) What falls out of the sky? (vs 21)


26) What do the people do because of the hail? (vs 21)


The Woman on the Beast; Revelation 17:1-18

1) What does one of the seven angels say to John? (vs 1) (Note 138)


2) What did the kings of the earth do with this prostitute? (vs 2)


3) What are we told about the inhabitants of the earth? (vs 2)


4) Where is John taken by the angel? (vs 3) (Note 139)


5) How does John describe the beast? (vs 3) (Note 140)


6) How does John describe the woman’s clothes? (vs 4)


7) What is the woman holding in her hand? (vs 4)


8) What is written on her forehead? (vs 5) (Note 142)


9) What does John tell us the woman is drunk on? (vs 6) (Note 143)

10) How does John feel when he sees the woman? (vs 6) (Note 144)


11) What does the angel say to John? (vs 7)


12) What does the angel say about the beast? (vs 8) (Note 145)


13) What is going to happen to the beast? (vs 8)


14) Who is going to be astonished by the beast? (vs 8) (Note 146)


15) What does the angel tell John is called for? (vs 9)


16) What do the seven heads of the beast represent? (vs 9) Note 147)


17) What else do the heads represent? (vs 10)


18) What has happened to five of the kings? (vs 10)


19) What is John told of the sixth king? (vs 10)


20) What is John told of the seventh king? (vs 10)


21) What are we told that the beast is? (vs 11) (note 148)


22) What is going to happen to the beast? (vs 11)


23) What do the ten horns represent? (vs 12)


24) How long will the ten kings resign? (vs 12)


25) What is the purpose of these ten kings? (vs 13) (Note 149)


26) Who are these ten kings going to make war against? (vs 14)


27) What will the Lamb do to them? (vs 14)


28) Why will he overcome them? (vs 14)


29) Who will be with the Lamb? (vs 14) (Note 150)


30) What does the angel tell John the waters are? (vs 15) (Note 151)


31) How will the beast and the ten king feel about the prostitute? (vs 16)


32) What will the beast and the ten kings do to the prostitute? (v16)


33) What has God put in their hearts? (vs 17)


34) Who does the angel tell John the woman is? (vs 18) ( Note 152)


The Fall of Babylon; Revelation 18:1-24

1) What does John tell us about the next angel he sees? (vs 1)


2) What does the angel say Babylon has become? (vs 2)


3) What has every nation done? (vs 3) (Note 153)


4) What have the kings of the earth done? (vs 3)


5) What have the merchants done? (vs 3)

6) Where does the next voice come from? (vs 4)


7) Who is the voice speaking to? (vs 4)


8) What does the voice call God’s people to do? (vs 4)


9) Why are God’s people to come out of Babylon (the false church)? (vs 4)


10) What does say about her sins? (vs 5)


11) What has God remembered? (vs 5)


12) What will Babylon be given (vs 6) (Note 154)


13) What will her punishment be mixed in? (vs 6) (Note 155)


14) How much punishment will She (Babylon/the Church) receive? (vs 7)


15) What will she say about herself? (vs 7)


16) How long will it take the plagues to overtake her?(vs 8)


17) What will happen to her? (vs 8)


18) How will the kings of the earth respond to her burning? (vs 9)


19) How will they feel about her destruction? (vs 10)


20) What will the merchants of the earth do? (vs 11)


21) What do you notice about the list of things that the merchants sold her? (vs 12-13)


22) What is the last thing on the list? (vs 13)


23) What will be said about the woman? (vs 14)


24) What has vanished and will never be recovered? (vs 14)


25) What will the merchants do? (vs 15)


26) What will the merchants cry out? (vs 16)


27) Who else will stand and watch? (vs 17)


28) What will they say when they see the smoke? (vs18)


29) What will they do? (vs 19)


30) What are they upset about? (vs 19)


31) Who is called to rejoice? (vs 20)


32) Why are they called to rejoice? (vs 20)


33) What does a mighty angel do? (vs 21)


34) What will the mighty angel say about the destruction of the city? (vs 21)


35) What does the angel say about music? (vs 22)


36) What does the angel say about work? (vs 22)


37) What does the angel say about light?(vs 23)


38) What does the angel say about the bride and the bridegroom? (vs 23)


39) What does the angel say about her merchants? (vs 23)


40) How does the angel say the nations were led astray? (vs 23)


41) What was found in her? (vs 24)


Halleluiah! Romans 19:1-10

1) What does John hear? (vs 1) (Note 156)


2) What do the voices say belongs to the Lord? (vs 1)

3) What do the voices say about God’s judgements? (vs 2)


4) Who has God condemned and why? (vs 2)


5) What has God avenged? (vs 2)


6) Why do the shout Hallelujah? (vs 3)


7) Who falls down and worships God? (vs 4)


8) What does the elders and the living creatures do? (vs 4)


9) Where does a voice come from? (vs 5)


10) What does the command? (vs 5)


11) How does John describe what he hears next? (vs 6)


12) What do the voices say they should do? (vs 6-7)


13) Why are they rejoicing? (vs 7) (Note 157)


14) What is the bride wearing? (vs 8) (Note 158)


15) What is John instructed to write? (vs 9)


16) What does the angel say about the words John is to write? (vs 9)


17) What does John do? (vs 10)


18) Why does the angel tell John not to worship him? (vs 10)


19) What does the angel command John to do and why? (vs 10) (Note 159)


The Rider on the White Horse; Revelation 19:11-21

1) What does John see? (vs 11) (Note 160)

2) What is the rider called? (vs 11) (Note 161)


3) How does he judge and make war? (vs 11)


4) How does John describe is eyes? (vs 12) (Note 162)


5) What are on his head? (vs 12) (Note 163)


6) What are we told about his name? (vs 12) (Note 164)


7) What are we told about his robe? (vs 13) (Note 165)


8) What is his name? (vs 13) (Note 166)


9) Who are following him? (vs 14) (Note 167)


10) What are the armies riding and how are they dressed? (vs 14)


11) What comes out of his mouth? (vs 15) (Note 168)


12) How will Jesus rule them? (vs 15)


13) What is Jesus going to do to those he makes war against? (vs 15) (Note 169)


14) What does Jesus have written on his robe and his thigh? (vs 16) (Note 170)


15) What is written on him? (vs 16) (Note 171)


16) What does John see? (vs 17) (Note 172)


17)  Who does the angel cry out to? (vs 17) (Note 173)


18) What does the angel say to the birds? (vs 17) (Note 174)


19) What is the meal that the birds are to eat made up of? (vs 18)


20) What does John see next? (vs 19) (see Note 135)


21) Who are captured? (vs 20)


22) What happens to these two? (vs 20) (Note 175)


23) What happens to the armies of the kings of the earth? (vs 21)


The Thousand Years Revelation 20:1-6

1) What does John see? (vs 1)


2) What is the angel holding? (vs 1) (Note 176)


3) What does the angel do? (vs 2)


4) What is the first name John gives to the dragon? (vs 2)(Note 177)


5) What is the second and third names that John gives to the dragon? (vs 2) (Note 178)

6) How long is the devil to be bound for? (vs 2) (Note 179)


7) Where is the devil thrown? (vs 3)


8) What does the angel do? (vs 3)


9) Why is the devil sealed in the abyss? (vs 3)


10) What happens after the thousand years? (vs 3)


11) What does John see? (vs 4)


12) Who are sitting on the thrones? (vs 4)


13) Who else does John see? (vs 4)


14) What had these people not done? (vs 4)


15) What happens to these people? (vs 4) (Note 180)


16) What happens to those who are not martyred. (vs 5)


17) How many resurrections does John say there are? (vs 5)


18) What does john call those who share in the first resurrection? (vs 6)


19) What does John say has no power over them? (vs 6)


20) What does john say that  they will become? (vs 6)


Satan’s Doom; Revelation 20:7-10

1) What will happen after one thousand years? (vs 7)


2) What is Satan going to do? (vs 8) (Note 181)


3) How big is the army that Satan puts together? (vs 8)

4) What does Satan’s army do? (vs 9) (Note 182)


5) What happens to the army of Satan? (vs 9)


6) What happens to the devil? (vs 10)


7) What will happen to the devil the beast and the false prophet? (vs 10) (Note 183)


The Dead are Judged; Revelation 20:11-15

1) What does John see? (vs 11)


2) What does John say flees from the presence of the one on the throne? (vs 11) (Note 184)


3) What does John see standing before the throne? (vs 12)


4) What does John say was opened? (vs 12) (Note 185)


5) What happens to those standing before the throne? (vs 12)

6) Where did the dead come from? (vs 13)


7) How is each person judged? (vs 13)


8) What happens to death and Hades? (vs 14)


9) What is the Lake of Fire called? (vs 14)


10) What happens to anyone whose name is not written in the book of life? (vs 15)


The New Jerusalem; Revelation 21:1-27

1) What does John see? (vs 1)(Note 187)


2) What happened to the first heaven and earth? (vs 1) (See Note 185)


3) What does John see next? (vs 2)(Note 188)


4) How does John describe the New Jerusalem? (vs 2)

5) What does John hear? (vs 3)


6) What does the voice say about the dwelling place of God? (vs 3)


7) What does the voice say about the relationship between God and people? (vs 3)


8) What will God wipe from people eyes? (vs 4)


9) What will there be no more of? (vs 4)


10) What does the voice say about the old order? (vs 4)


11) Who is making everything new? (vs 5)


12) What does the one on the throne tell John to do? (vs 5)


13) What does the one on the throne say? (vs 6)


14) What does the one on the throne call himself? (vs 6) (Note 189)


15) What will He give and to whom? (vs 6)


16) What will he who overcomes inherit? (vs 7)


17) What will be the relationship between the one who overcomes and God? (vs 7)


18) Whose place will be in the lake of fire? (vs 8)


19) What is being put in the lake of fire called? (vs 8)


20) What does one of the angels say he will show John? (vs 9)


21) What does the angel show John? (vs 10)


22) Where is the Holy City coming from? (vs 10)


22) What does the city shine with? (vs 11)


23) What does John use to illustrate the city’s brilliance? (vs 11)


24) What are the walls like? (vs 12)


25) What does John tell us about the gates? (vs 12-13)


26) What does john tell us about the foundation of the city? (vs 14) (Note 190)


27) What does the angel have? (vs 15)


28) What are the measurements of the city? (vs 16-17) (Note 191)


29) What is the wall of the city made of? (vs 18)


30) What is the city made of? (vs 18)


31) What is the foundation decorated with? (vs 19-20) (Note 192)


32) What are the twelve gates made of? (vs 21)


33) What is are the streets made of? (vs 21)


34) What does John not see in the city? (vs 22)


35) Why does the city not have a temple? (vs 22)


36) What does the city not need? (vs 23)


37) Why is there no need for the sun and the moon? (vs 23)


38) What is the Lamb called (vs 23)


39) What will the nations walk by? (vs 24)


40) What will the kings of the earth do? (vs 24)


41) What does John say about the gates? (vs 25)


42 What does John say about day and night? (vs 25)


43) What will be brought into the city? (vs 26)


44) What will never be brought into the city? (vs 27)


45) Who will be allowed in the city? (vs 27)


The River of Life; Revelation 22:1-6

1) What does the angel show John? (vs 1)


2) How does John describe the river? (vs 1)


3) Where does the river flow from and to? (vs 1-2)

4) What stands on each side of the river? (vs  2) (Note 193)


5) What does John tells us about its fruit? (vs 2)


6) What are the leaves of the tree for? (vs 2)


7) What will there be no longer? (vs 3) (Note 194)


8) What is in the city? (vs 3)


9) What will the servants of God do? (vs 3)


10) What will the people see? (vs 4) (Note 195)


11) What will be on their foreheads? (vs 4)


12) What does john say about lamps and light? (vs 5)


13) How long will the reign be? (vs 5)


14) What does the angel tell John about these words? (vs 6)


15) How is the Lord described here? (vs 6)


16) Why was the angels sent? (vs 6)


Jesus is Coming; Revelation 22:7-21

1) What message doe John give us from Jesus? (vs 7)


2) Who does Jesus say is blessed? (vs 7)


3) What does John say about himself? (vs 8)


4) What does John say that he did after hearing and seeing these things? (vs 8)


5) What does the angel say to John? (vs 9)

6) What does the angel tell John not to do and why? (vs 10)


Note: a better translation of verse 11 is that those who are vile and do wrong will still be vile and do wrong and those who do right and are holy will still do right and be holy. John is not condoning the wrong actions but is saying people will continue to do them and he is encouraging those who do right things to continue to do them.

7) What does John say about those who do wrong and are vile? (vs 11)


8) What does John say about those who do right and are holy? (vs 11)


9) What message does John give us from Jesus? (vs 12)


10) What does Jesus say is with him? (vs 12)


11) What does Jesus say that he is? (vs 13) (Note 189)


12) Who does Jesus say are blessed? (vs 14)


13) What does those who have washed their robes have? (vs 14)


14)   What does Jesus call those outside of the gates? (vs 15)


15) Why does Jesus say that he has sent his angel? (vs 16)


16) What does Jesus call himself? (vs 16) (Note 196)


17) Who says come? (vs 17) (Note 196)


18) What is the free gift that is offered? (vs 17)


19) Who is warned? (vs 18)


20) What is the warning about adding? (vs 18)


21) What is the warning about taking away? (vs 19)


22) How does John end Revelation? (vs 20-21)



Revelation Bible Study Notes

Notes on Revelations


1)         ALPHA AND OMEGA – Alpha is the first letter in the Greek alphabet and Omega is the last letter in the Greek alphabet. They symbolize the beginning and the end and they also symbolize all that is.


2)         YHWH – (Yahweh) God’s personal name. I am what I am and I will be what I will be. This come from a unique form of grammar called a pluperfect which is not found in English. It is a word that begins in the past, is in the present, and continues into the future without changing. God says of Himself; Who is and who was and who is to come.


3)         ANGEL/MESSENGER – angel is a direct translation of the Greek word angelos (angelos) which means messenger. I believe that here we are better off to translate is as messenger and therefore referring to the Pastors of these churches.


4)         EPHESUS – Chief city of the Ionian confederacy and capital of the Roman province “Asia” (Mysia, Lydia, Caria), on the S. side of the plain of Cayster, and partly on the heights of Prion and Coressus, opposite the island of Samos. A leading scene of Paul’s ministry (Acts 18; 19; 20); also one of the seven churches addressed in the Apocalypse (Rev 1:11; 2:1), and the center from from whence John superintended the adjoining churches (Eusebius, 3:23). Ephesus, though she was commended for patient labors for Christ’s name’s sake, is reproved for having “left her first love.”

5)         NICOLAITANS – A symbolical name. Lightfoot suggests a Hebrew interpretation, nikola, “let us eat”;  Not a sect, but professing Christians who introduce a false freedom, i.e. licentiousness. A reaction from Judaism, the first danger of the church. The Jerusalem council (Acts 15:20,29), while releasing Gentile converts from legalism, required their abstinence from idol meats and concomitant fornication. The Nicolaitans abused Paul’s doctrine of the grace of God into lasciviousness. They persuaded many to escape condemnation by yielding as to “eating idol meats,” which was then a test of faithfulness. They even joined in the “fornication” of the idol feasts, as though permitted by Christ’s “law of liberty.” The “lovefeasts” thus became pagan orgies. The Nicolaitans combined evil “deeds” which Jesus “hates” with evil “doctrine.”


6)         SMYRNA – A city on the coast of Ionia, at the head of the gulf, having a well sheltered harbour; N. of Ephesus; beautified by Alexander the Great and Antigonus, and designated “the beautiful.” Still flourishing, and under the same name, after various vicissitudes, and called “the Paris of the Levant,” with large commerce and a population of 200,000. The church here was one of the seven addressed by the Lord (Rev 2:8-11). Polycarp, martyred in  A.D. 168, 86 years after conversion, was its bishop, probably “the angel of the church in Smyrna.” The Lord’s allusions to persecutions accord with this identification. The attributes of Him “which was dead and is alive” would comfort Smyrna under persecution. The idol Dionysus at Smyrna was believed to have been killed and come to life; in contrast to this lying fable is Christ’s title, “the First and the Last, which was dead and is alive” (Rev 2:8).


7)         PERGAMUM – A city of Mysia, three miles N. of the River Caicus. Eumenes II (197 B.C. – 159 B.C.) built a beautiful city round an impregnable castle on “the pine-coned rock.” Attalus II bequeathed his kingdom to Rome 133 B.C. The library was its great boast; founded by Earaches and destroyed by Caliph Omar. The prepared sheepskins were called pergamena charta from whence our “parchment” is derived. The Nicephorium, or thank offering grove for victory over Antiochus, had an assemblage of temples of idols, Zeus, Athene, Apollo, Aesculapius, Dionysus, Aphrodite. Aesculapius the healing god (Tacitus, Ann. 3:63) was the prominent Pergamean idol (Martial); the Pergamenes on coins are called “the principal temple-care-takers (neokoroi) of Asia,” and their ritual is made by Pausanias a standard. The grove of Aesculapius was recognized by the Roman senate under Tiberius as having right of sanctuary. The serpent (Satan’s image) was sacred to him, charms and incantations were among medical agencies then, and Aesculapius was called “saviour.” How appropriately the address to the Pergamos church says, “I know thy works, and where thou dwellest, even where Satan’s seat (throne) is,”

8)         BALAAM –  not of the people (Israel), a foreigner; or, “the destroyer of the people,” corresponding to the Greek Nicolaos, “conqueror of the people” (Rev 2:14-15), namely, by having seduced them to fornication with the Moabite women (Num 25), just as the Nicolaitanes sanctioned the eating of things sacrificed to idols and fornication.

As a Judas was among the apostles, so Balaam among the prophets, a true seer but a bad man; at the transition to the Mosaic from the patriarchal age witnessing to the truth in spite of himself, as Caiaphas did at the transition from the legal to the Christian dispensation. Head knowledge without heart sanctification increases one’s condemnation. Making “godliness a source of gain” is the damning sin of all such as Balaam and Simon Magus: 1 Tim 6:5 (Greek). In Mic 6:5 (“O My people, remember now what Balak king of Moab consulted, and what Balaam the son of Beer answered him from Shittim),” the sense is, Remember the fatal effects at Shittim of Israel’s joining Baal Peer and committing whoredom with the daughters of Moab, and how but for God’s sparing mercy Israel would have been given to utter destruction. Like Judas and Ahithophel, Balaam set in motion the train of events which entailed his own destruction. Balak’s summons was the crisis in his history, bringing him into contact with God’s people and so giving him the possibility of nearer communion with God than before. Trying to combine prophecy and soothsaying, the service of God and the wages of iniquity, he made the choice that ruined him for ever! He wanted to do opposite things at once, to curse and to bless (James 3:10-12), to earn at once the wages of righteousness and unrighteousness, if possible not to offend God, yet not to lose Balak’s reward.


9)         WHITE STONE – In those days, a white stone was put into a vessel by a judge to vote acquittal for a person on trial. It was also used Like a “ticket” to gain admission to a feast. Both would certainly apply to the believer in a spiritual sense: he has been declared righteous through faith in Christ, and he feasts with Christ.


10)       THYATIRA – Thyatira lay a little to the left of the road from Pergamos to Sardis (Strabo 13:4, who calls it “a Macedonian colony”); on the Lycus, a little to the S. of the Hyllus, at the N. end of the valley between Mount Tmolus and the southern ridge of Tetanus. Founded by Seleucus Nicator. On the confines of Mysia and Ionia. A corporate guild of dyers is mentioned in three inscriptions of the times of the Roman empire between Vespasian and Caracalla. To it probably belonged Lydia, the seller of purple (i.e. scarlet, for the ancients called many bright red colors “purple”) stuffs (Acts 16:14). The waters are so suited for dyeing that nowhere is the scarlet of fezzes thought to be so brilliant and permanent as that made here. Modern Thyatira contains a population of 17,000. In Rev 2:18-25, “the Son of God who hath eyes like unto a flame of fire, and His feet like fine brass,” stands in contrast to the sun god.

Tyrimnas, the tutelary god of Thyatira, represented with flaming rays and feet of burnished brass. Christ commends Thyatira’s works, charity, service, faith, and patience. Thyatira’s “last works were more than the first,” realizing 1 Thess 4:1, instead of retrograding from “first love and first works” as Ephesus (Rev 2:4-5); the converse of Matt 12:45; 2 Peter 2:20. Yet Thyatira “suffered that woman JEZEBEL (which see), which calleth herself a prophetess, to teach and to seduce My servants to commit fornication, and to eat things sacrificed unto idols.” Some self-styled prophetess, or collection of prophets (the feminine in Hebrew idiom expressing a multitude), closely attached to and influencing the Thyatira church and its presiding bishop or “angel” (the Alexandrinus and Vaticanus manuscripts read “thy wife” for “that woman”) as Jezebel did her weak husband Ahab. The presiding angel ought to have exercised his authority over the prophetess or prophets so-called, who seduced many into the libertinism of the BALAAMITES and NICOLAITANS (sec) of Thyatira’s more powerful neighbour Pergamos (Rev 2:6,14,16). The Lord encourages the faithful section at Thyatira. “Unto you (omit ‘and’ with the Alexandrinus and the Vaticanus manuscripts, the Sinaiticus manuscript reads: ‘among ‘) the rest in Thyatira I say, … I will put upon you none other burden (save abstinence from and protestation against these abominations: this the seducers regarded as an intolerable burden, see Matt 11:30); but that which ye have hold fast until I come.” A shrine outside Thyatira walls was sacred to the sibyl Sambatha, a Jewess or Chaldaean, in an enclosure called “the Chaldaean court.”


11)       JEZEBEL – = chaste, free from carnal connection. One whose name belied her nature: licentious, fanatical, and stern. Daughter of Ethbaal, or Ithobal, king of Sidon and priest of Astarte, who had murdered Phelles his predecessor (Josephus contra Apion, 1:18) and restored order in Tyre after a period of anarchy. Wife of AHAB (which see) who became a puppet in her hands for working all wickedness in the sight of Jehovah (1 Kings 21:25). She established the Phoenician idolatry on a grand scale at her husband’s court, maintaining at her table 450 prophets of Baal and 400 of Astarte (so “the groves” ought to be translated): 1 Kings 16:31-32; 18:19,13. She even slew the prophets of Jehovah (2 Kings 9:7). When Elijah under God wrought the miracle at Carmel, and killed her favorite prophets, Jezebel still unsubdued swore by her gods to do to Elijah as he had done to them (1 Kings 19:1-3). Even he was constrained to flee for his life to Beersheba of Judah and the desert beyond.

Like Clytemnestra or Lady Macbeth, she taunted Ahab with lack of kingly spirit in not taking what he wished, Naboth’s vineyard (1 Kings 21:7,14,23): “dost thou govern Israel? I (the real monarch) will give thee the vineyard of Naboth.” So she wrote in Ahab’s name to the Jezreelite elders, and sealed the letters with his seal; and to her it was that they wrote the announcement that they had stoned Naboth for blasphemy. Upon her therefore fell a special share of the divinely-foretold doom. She survived Ahab 14 years, and still as queen mother exercised an evil influence in the courts of her sons Ahaziah and Joram of Israel, and in that of her daughter Athaliah’s husband Jehoram (2 Chron 21:6; 22:2). But judgment was executed upon her by JEHU (which see) for all her whoredoms and witchcrafts, which had become proverbial (2 Kings 9:22,30-37).

In Rev 2:20 Jezebel typically expresses some self-styled prophetess, or a set of false prophets (for the Hebrew feminine expresses collectively a multitude), as closely attached to the Thyatira church as a wife is to a husband, and as powerfully influencing that church for evil as Jezebel did her husband. The Sinaiticus manuscript and the Paris manuscript and Vulgate Latin read as the KJV; but the Alexandrinus and Vaticanus manuscripts “thy wife,” i.e. the wife of the presiding bishop or “angel.” Like her father, the ancient Jezebel had been swift to shed blood. A priestess and devotee of Baal and Astarte herself, she seduced Israel beyond the calf worship (the worship of the true God under the cherub ox form, a violation of the second commandment) to Baal worship, of which whoredoms and witchcrafts were a leading part (a violation of the first). The spiritual Jezebel of Thyatira similarly, by pretended inspiration, lured God’s servants to libertinism, fornication and idol meats (Rev 2:6,14-15), as though things done in the flesh were outside the man, and therefore indifferent. The deeper the church penetrated into paganism, the more pagan she became.


12)       MORNING STAR – Jesus Christ is “the Bright and Morning Star” (Rev 22:16). The promise in Rev 2:28 suggests that God’s people shall be so closely identified with Christ that He will “belong” to them! But perhaps there is also an allusion here to Satan, who wanted the kingdom for himself and who offered the world’s kingdoms to Christ if He would worship him but once (Matt 4:8-11). In Isa 14:12, Satan is named Lucifer, which in Hebrew means “brightness, bright star.” The compromising people in Thyatira were following “the depths of Satan,” which would lead to darkness and death. God’s overcomers, on the other hand, would share the Morning Star!


13)       SARDIS – Capital of Lydia, in Asia Minor; on the Pactolus, at the root of Mount Tmolus. Northward is a view up the Hermus valley. Southward stand two beautiful Ionic columns of the temple of Cybele, six feet and one third in diameter, 35 ft. below the capital; the soil is 25 ft. above the pavement. The citadel is on a steep, high hill. So steep was its S. wall that Croesus the last king omitted to guard it; and one of Cyrus’ Persian soldiers, seeing a Lydian descend by cut steps to regain his helmet, thereby led a body of Persians into the acropolis. Now an unhealthy desert; not a human being dwelt in the once populous Sardis in 1850.

Famed for the golden sands of Pactolus, and as a commercial entrepot. In Sardis and Laodicea alone of the seven addressed in Rev 2; 3; there was no conflict with foes within or without. Not that either had renounced apparent opposition to the world, but neither so faithfully witnessed by word and example as to “torment them that dwell on the earth” (Rev 11:10). Smyrna and Philadelphia, the most afflicted, alone receive unmixed praise. Sardis and Laodicea, the most wealthy, receive little besides censure. Sardis “had a name that she lived and was dead” (Rev 3:1; 1 Tim 5:6; 2 Tim 3:5; Titus 1:16; Eph 2:1,5; 5:14). “Become (Greek) watchful” or “waking” (Greek), what thou art not now. “Strengthen the things which remain,” i.e. the few graces which in thy spiritual slumber are not yet extinct, but “ready to die”; so that Sardis was not altogether “dead.” Her works were not “filled up in full complement (pepleeromena) in the sight of My God” (so the Siniaticus, Alexandrinus, and Vaticanus manuscripts).

Christ’s God is therefore our God; His judgment is the Father’s judgment (John 20:17; 5:22). He threatens Sardis if she will not watch or wake up, “He will come on her as a thief”; as the Greek proverb, “the feet of the avenging deities are shod with wool,” expressing the noiseless nearness of God’s judgments when supposed far off. Sardis had nevertheless “a few names” in the book of life, known by the Lord as His (John 10:3). The gracious Lord does not overlook exceptional saints among masses of professors. Their reward and their character accord. “They have not defiled their garments,” so “they shall walk (the best attitude for showing grace to advantage) with Me in white, for they are worthy,” namely, with Christ’s worthiness “put on them” (Rev 7:14; Ezek 16:14). The state of grace now, and that of glory hereafter, harmonize. Christ’s rebuke was not in vain. Melito, bishop of Sardis in the second century, was eminent for piety; he visited Palestine to investigate concerning the Old Testament canon, and wrote an epistle on it (Eusebius 4:26; Jerome Catal. Script. Eccl. 24). In  A.D. 17, under the emperor Tiberius, an earthquake desolated Sardis and 11 other cities of Asia; Rome remitted its taxes for five years, and the emperor gave a benefaction from the privy purse.


14)       PHILADELPHIA – In Lydia, on the lower slopes of Tmolus, 28 miles S.E. of Sardis; built by Attalus II, Philadelphus, king of Pergamus, who died. 138 B.C. Nearly destroyed by an earthquake in Tiberius’ reign (Tacitus, Annals 2:47). The connection of its church with the Jews causes Christ’s address to have Old Testament coloring and imagery (Rev 3:7-18). It and Smyrna alone of the seven, the most afflicted, receive unmixed praise. To Smyrna the promise is, “the synagogue of Satan” should not prevail against her faithful ones; to Philadelphia, she should even win over some of “the synagogue of Satan,” (the Jews who might have been the church of God, but by opposition had become “the synagogue of Satan”) to “fall on their faces and confess God is in her of a truth” (1 Cor 14:25). Her name expresses “brotherly love,” in conflict with legal bondage. Her converts fall low before those whom once they persecuted (Ps 84:10; Acts 16:29-33). The promise, “him that overcometh I will make a pillar,” i.e. immovably firm, stands in contrast to Philadelphia often shaken by earthquakes. Curiously, a portion of a stone church wall topped with arches of brick remains; the building must have been magnificent, and dates from Theodosius. The region being of disintegrated lava was favourable to the vine; and the coins bear the head of Bacchus. This church had but” little strength,” i.e. was small in numbers and poor in resources, of small account in men’s eyes. The cost of repairing the often shaken city taxed heavily the citizens. Poverty tended to humility; conscious of weakness Philadelphia leant on Christ her strength (2 Cor 12:9); so she “kept His word,” and when tested did “not deny His name.” So “He who hath the key of David, He that openeth and no man shutteth,” “set before” Philadelphia an open door which no man can shut. Faithful in keeping the word of Christ’s patience (i.e. the persevering endurance which He requires) Philadelphia was kept, i.e. delivered, out of the hour of temptation. “Among the Greek churches of Asia Philadelphia is still erect, a column in a scene of ruins, a pleasing example that the paths of honour and safety may be sometimes the same.” (Gibbon.)


15)       KEY –  A piece of wood, from seven inches to two feet long, fitted with pegs which correspond to small holes in the bolt within; the key put through a hole draws the bolt. The symbol of authority to open or shut (Isa 22:22; Rev 3:7; 1:18).


16)       SYNAGOGUE – from the Greek word sunagogue which means an assembly or a group. It does not necessarily mean a church of Satan or Satanic worship and in this case most it likely does not means that but more likely means unbelievers


17)       LAODICEA – A city of Phrygia. Originally Diospolis, then Rheas, then Laodicea. Site of one of the seven churches addressed by Christ through John (Rev 1:11; 3:14). In Paul’s epistle to the COLOSSIANS (Col 4:13-16) Laodicea is associated with Colossae and Hierapolis, which exactly accords with its geographical position, 18 miles W. of Colossae, six miles S. of Hierapolis. It lay in the Roman province “Asia,” a mile S. of the river Lycus, in the Maeander valley, between Colossae and Philadelphia. A Seleucid king, Antiochus II, Theos, named it from Laodice his wife. Overthrown often by earthquakes. It was rebuilt by its wealthy citizens, without state help, when destroyed in  A.D. 62 (Tacitus, Annals 14:27). This wealth (arising from its excellent wools) led to a self-satisfied “lukewarm” state in spiritual things, which the Lord condemns as more dangerous than positive icy coldness (Rev 3:14-21). The two churches most comfortable temporally are those most reproved, Sardis and Laodicea; those most afflicted of the seven are the most commended, Smyrna and Philadelphia. Subsequently, the church was flourishing, for it was at a council at Laodicea,  A.D. 361, that the Scripture canon was defined.

The angel of the Laodicean church is supposed to be Archippus whom Paul 30 years before had warned to be diligent in fulfilling his ministry (Col 4:17). The “lukewarm” state, if the transitional stage to a warmer, is desirable (for a little religion, if real, is better than none), but fatal when an abiding state, for it is mistaken for a safe state (Rev 3:17). The danger is of disregarded principle; religion enough to lull the conscience, not to save the soul; halting between two opinions (1 Kings 18:21; 2 Kings 17:41; Ezek 20:39; Matt 6:24). The hot (at Hierapolis) and cold springs near Laodicea suggested the simile. As worldly poverty favors poverty of spirit (Matt 5:3, compare Luke 6:20), so worldly riches tend to spiritual self-sufficiency (Hos 12:8). Paul’s epistle to the neighbouring Colossae was designed for Laodicea also, though Paul had not seen the Christians there at the time (Col 2:1,3; 4:6); it tells Laodicea “in whom” to find “hidden all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge,” whereas she thought she had all sufficiency in herself, “because thou sayest I am rich,” etc. He endured a sore conflict, striving in anxious prayer in behalf of the churches of Ephesus and Laodicea that they might be delivered from Judaizing teachers, who blended Eastern theosophy and angel worship with Jewish asceticism and observance of new moons and sabbaths, professing a deeper insight into the world of spirits and a nearer approach to heavenly purity and intelligence than the simple gospel afforded (Col 2:8-9,16-23). A few arches and part of an amphitheater are all the remains left of Laodicea Now Denishu.


18) Here begins Revelation proper; first, Rev 4 and Rev 5 set forth the heavenly scenery of the succeeding visions, and God on His throne, the covenant God of His Church, revealing them to His apostle through Christ. The first great portion comprises the opening of the seals and the sounding of the trumpets, (Rev 4-11.) As the communication respecting the seven churches opened with a suitable vision of the Lord Jesus as Head of the Church, so this part opens with a vision suitable to the matter to be revealed. The scene passes from earth to heaven.


19) Jasper and Sardine stone – Jasper. From Rev 21:11, where it is called most precious, which the jasper was not, Ebrard infers it was a diamond. Ordinarily, the jasper is a stone of various wavy colours, somewhat transparent. In Rev 21:11 it represents crystalline brightness. The sardine, our cornelian, or else a fiery red. As the brightness represents God’s holiness, so the fiery red His just wrath. The same union of white brightness and fiery redness appears in Ezek 1:4; 8:2; Dan 7:9; Rev 1:14; 10:1.


20) Rainbow round about the throne – a complete circle (type of God’s perfection and eternity: not a half-circle, as the earthly rainbow) surrounding the throne vertically. Its various colours, which combined form one pure ray, symbolize the various aspects of God’s providences uniting in one harmonious whole. Here, however, predominant among the prismatic colours is green, the most refreshing to look upon, symbolizing God’s consolatory promises in Christ to His people amidst judgments on His foes. The rainbow was the token of God’s covenant with all flesh, and His people in particular. Hereby God renewed the grant originally made to the first man. As the rainbow was reflected on the waters of the world’s ruin, and is seen only when a cloud is over the earth, so another deluge, of fire, shall precede the ‘new heavens and earth’ granted to redeemed man, as the earth after the flood was restored to Noah. The Lord on His throne, whence (Rev 4:5) proceed “lightnings and thunderings,” shall issue the commission to rid the earth of its oppressors; but amidst judgment, when other men’s hearts fail for fear, the believer shall be reassured by the rainbow, the covenant token, round the throne (DeBurgh). The heavenly bow speaks of the shipwreck of the world through sin; also of calm sunshine after the storm. The cloud is the token of God’s presence-in the tabernacle Holiest Place; on mount Sinai at the giving of the law; at the ascension (Acts 1:9); at His coming again (Rev 1:7).

21) Who are these twenty-four elders seated on thrones? It is unlikely that they are angels, because angels are not numbered (Heb 12:22), crowned, or enthroned. Besides, in Rev 7:11, the elders are distinguished from the angels (see also Rev 5:8-11). The crowns they wear are the “victor’s crowns” (the Greek word stephanos); and we have no evidence that angels receive rewards.

These elders probably symbolize the people of God in heaven, enthroned and rewarded. There were twenty-four courses of priests in the Old Testament temple (1 Chron 24:3-5,18; see also Luke 1:5-9). God’s people are “kings and priests” (Rev 1:6), reigning and serving with Christ. Note especially their praise (Rev 5:9-10). When Daniel (Dan 7:9) saw the thrones set up (not “cast down” as in the King James Version), they were empty; but when John saw them, they had been filled. Since there were twelve tribes of Israel and twelve Apostles, perhaps the number twenty-four symbolizes the completion of God’s people.


22) Thunderings and voices. –  transpose, ‘voices and thunderings.’ Compare, at the giving of the law, Ex 19:16. ‘The thunderings express God’s threats against the ungodly; there are voices in them (Rev 10:3): i.e., not only does He, threaten generally, but predicts special judgments’ (Grotius).


23) Like unto crystal – not imperfectly transparent as the ancient glass, but like rock crystal. Contrast the turbid “many waters” on which the harlot “sitteth,” (Rev 17.) Compare Job 37:18. Primarily, the pure ether which separates God’s throne from all things before it, symbolizing the ‘purity, calmness, and majesty of God’s rule’ (Alford). But see the analogue in the temple, the molten sea before the sanctuary (note, Rev 4:4). There is in it depth and transparency, but not the fluidity and instability of the natural sea (cf. Rev 21:1). It stands solid and clear. God’s judgments are “a great deep” (Ps 36:6). In Rev 15:2, it is a “sea of glass mingled with fire.” There is symbolized the purificatory baptism with water and the Spirit, of all made “kings and priests unto God.” In Rev 15:2, the baptism with trial is meant. Through both all the king-priests have to pass in coming to God. His judgments, which overwhelm the ungodly, they stand firmly upon, able, like Christ, to walk on the sea as if solid glass.


24)  It is supposed that there is a reference here to the four standards or ensigns of the four divisions of the tribes in the Israelite camp, as they are described by Jewish writers. The first living creature was like a lion; this was, say the rabbis, the standard of JUDAH on the east, with the two tribes of Issachar and Zabulon. The second, like a calf or ox which was the emblem of EPHRAIM who pitched on the west, with the two tribes of Manasseh and Benjamin. The third, with the face of a man, which, according to the rabbis, was the standard of REUBEN who pitched on the south, with the two tribes of Simeon and Gad. The fourth, which was like a flying (spread) eagle, was, according to the same writers, the emblem on the ensign of DAN who pitched on the north, with the two tribes of Asher and Naphtali. This description agrees with the four faces of the cherub in Ezekiel’s vision.

Christian tradition has given these creatures as emblems of the four evangelists. To John is attributed the EAGLE; to Luke the OX, to Mark the LION, and to Matthew the MAN, or angel in human form. As the former represented the whole Jewish church or congregation, so the latter is intended to represent the whole Christian church.


25) This song is taken from Isaiah 6:2. Isaiah has a vision of the Lord in the Temple. In Isaiah’s vision the serephs are singing this song. Holy, Holy, Holy, reminds us that God is more holy than anything else. Something that is set apart for God only is called Holy. The Holy of holies is the part of the temple where the Arc of the Covenant is kept. The was thought to be the throne of God on earth, and no one was allowed in there except for one day a year. On the Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur) the High Priest would enter the Holy of Holies to ask forgiveness for the sins of the nation. God is even more holy than the Holy of Holies. God is Holy, Holy, Holy. Three is also a number in Hebrew that means completeness, so by repeating it three times we are reminded that God is completely holy.


26) The right hand symbolizes power. By god holding the scroll in His right hand it symbolizes that the words of this scroll will be carried out by the power and authority of God.  Legal documents were sealed, often with seven seals imprinted with the attestations of seven witnesses. (The wax seals would have to be broken to free the strings beneath them, which wrapped the scroll and guaranteed that it had not been opened and thus altered.) This form was used for contract deeds and wills; it became increasingly common in Roman documents of the period, and some Palestinian Jewish documents of this sort have been recovered. Scrolls were normally written on only one side of a papyrus sheet, reserving the outside for the title or address; but this scroll is particularly full and written on both sides (cf. Ezek 2:9-10).


27)  Lions were used on Torah shrines (containers which housed law scrolls) in early Jewish art and were regarded as figures of strength and authority, but a more direct background lies at hand. The “lion of Judah” alludes to Gen 49:9-10, which predicted the Davidic dynasty and was understood messianically in later Jewish literature. “Root of David” alludes to Isa 11:1 and 10 (Jesse was David’s father), which suggests that the *Messiah would come after the Davidic line had seemed cut off.


28)  Whereas a lion was the ultimate symbol of power in ancient views of the animal kingdom (cf. also, e.g., Isa 35:9; 65:25), a lamb was considered powerless (cf. Isa 40:11); a slaughtered lamb was a dramatic contrast with a reigning lion (cf. Isa 53:7). Lambs were associated with a variety of sacrifices, but in Revelation this figure especially represents the Passover lamb, who delivers God’s people from the plagues of the following chapters (cf. Ex 12:12-13).


29)  He appears as a lamb, having seven horns and seven eyes, perfect power to execute all the will of God and perfect wisdom to understand it all and to do it in the most effectual manner; for he hath the seven Spirits of God, he has received the Holy Spirit without measure, in all perfection of light, and life, and power, by which he is able to teach and rule all parts of the earth.


30) The priests of Israel (Levites) were set apart from the rest of the nation to lead the people in worship and care for the religious life of the nation. They offered the sacrifices, the burnt offerings, and the prayers for the people to God. They were the ones who interceded between people and God. With the death of Jesus for our sins, there is no need for someone else to be a go between for us. We can go directly to God ourselves.


31) The particular praise reflects the redemption of Israel from Egypt by the blood of the Passover lamb (see also comment on Rev 1:6), except that the people of God now explicitly include representatives from every people, celebrating redemption in their multiethnic, diverse styles of worship. Further, they would finally reign over the rest of the earth; Jewish traditions portrayed Israel as receiving the *kingdom and reigning over the nations in the end time.


32) “Ten thousand” was the largest single number used in Greek, so “ten thousands of ten thousands” (myriads of myriads) is the author’s way of calling them innumerable.

33) Christ, whether in person or by His angel, preparatory to His coming again, as appears from Rev 19:11-12.

Crown, [stefanos] – the wreath of a conqueror: also implied by His white horse, white being the emblem of victory. In Rev 19:11-12, the last step in His victorious progress: accordingly there He wears many diadems

And to (that He should) conquer – to gain a lasting victory. All four seals usher in judgments on the earth, as the power which opposes the reign of Himself and His Church. This, rather than conversion, is meant, though, secondarily, the elect will be gathered out through His Word and His judgments.


34)  The “sword” was often a symbol of judgment by war in the *Old Testament and later literature, and red was the color most associated with war and bloodshed (hence the “red planet” is named Mars for the Roman god of war). The bloody unrest of A.D. 68 A.D.-69, when three emperors were successively killed, would have been one illustration of the principle here.  In Matthew 24:3-8 and Mark 13:3-8, the disciples ask Jesus what will be a sign of the end times. Jesus tells them that there will be wars and rumors of wars.


35)  Black symbolizes hardship and famine, bad times for the people of the earth

The “scales” indicate rationing, or at least the caution of merchants to get every cent the food is worth. Barley and wheat were basic staples. Because a quart of wheat was a day’s sustenance, and a denarius was a day’s wage, a man with a family would have to buy the cheaper barley instead. Even then, three quarts of barley was hardly enough daily food for a whole family to subsist on; in the many peasant families with large numbers of children, several children would die. The famine also created a high inflation rate: this wheat costs more than ten times the average price of wheat.


36) Hades is the Greek equivalent of the Hebrew Sheol. This is the place of the dead. It is not a place for the guilty but just symbolizes death. We cannot assume that those who die are only the sinners.


37) Under the altar. As the blood of sacrificial victims on the altar was poured at the bottom of the altar, so the souls of those sacrificed for Christ’s testimony are symbolically represented under the altar in heaven; for ‘the life is in the blood,’ and blood is often represented as crying for vengeance (Gen 4:10). The sacrificial altar was not in the sanctuary, but outside; so Christ’s literal sacrifice, and the figurative sacrifice of the martyrs, took place, not in the heavenly sanctuary, but outside, here on earth. The blood of the martyrs cries from the earth under Christ’s cross, whereon they may be considered virtually to have been sacrificed:


38) Gentiles often personified the elements of nature themselves or recognized gods attached to them; Jewish people believed that God had delegated his authority over various features of nature (including winds) to angels under his command. “Four corners” of the earth was meant figuratively, even in ancient times. Most people viewed the earth as circular; “four corners” was nevertheless conventional speech, as was the idea of four winds from the four directions of heaven. The winds had both positive and negative effects in ancient sources. According to some views, the wind carried along the sun and moon chariots, or God founded the heavens on the winds, and the stoppage of winds could signal the advent of a new age.


39 From the east – ‘the rising of the sun:’ the quarter from which God’s glory manifests itself. This angel is coming from the presence of God


40) “Seal” refers to the impress of a signet ring; an official who wished to delegate his authority for a task to a representative would allow that subordinate to use his signet ring.


41) Till we have sealed the servants of our God – parallel to Matt 24:31. God’s love is such that He cannot do anything in judgment until His people are secured (Gen 19:22). Israel, just before the Lord’s coming, shall be re-embodied as a nation; for its tribes are specified (Joseph, however, substituted for Dan: whether because Antichrist is to come from Dan, or Dan is to be his tool,( Gen 49:17; Jer 8:16; Amos 8:14, as there was a Judas among the Twelve). Out of these tribes a believing remnant will be preserved from the judgments which destroy the anti-Christian confederacy (Rev 6:12-17), and shall be transfigured with the elect of all nations-namely, 144,000 (or whatever is meant by the symbolical number), who shall faithfully resist the seductions of Antichrist, while the rest, restored to Palestine in unbelief, are his dupes, and at last his victims.


42) The palm branch is the symbol of joy and triumph: used at the Feast of Tabernacles, on the 15 th day of the 7 th month, when they kept feast to God in thanksgiving for the ingathered fruits. This shall be the completed harvest of the elect from every nation. The earthly Feast of Tabernacles will be renewed, in commemoration of Israel’s preservation in her long wilderness-like sojourn among the nations from which she shall have been delivered, just as the original feast commemorated her dwelling for 40 years in tabernacles in the wilderness.


43) Great tribulation – the literal Greek translation is the great pressure –  ‘the tribulation, the great one,’ to which the martyrs were exposed under the fifth seal; which, Christ says, is to precede His coming (Matt 24:21,29-30, “great tribulation, such as was not since the beginning of the world”), followed by the same signs as the sixth seal:  the climax including all the tribulation which saints of all ages have passed through. This Rev 7 recapitulates the vision of the six seals, Rev 6 filling up the outline there in what affects the faithful. There, however, their number was waiting to be completed; here it is completed; they are taken out of the earth before the judgments on the anti-Christian apostasy: with their Lord, they, and all His faithful witnesses of past ages, wait for His and their coming to be glorified and reign together. Meanwhile, in contrast with their previous sufferings, they are exempt from the hunger, thirst, and scorching heats of their earthly life (Rev 7:16), and are refreshed by the Lamb of God Himself (Rev 7:17; 14:1-4,13): an earnest of the post-millennial final state (Rev 21:4-6; 22:1-5).


44) The seven angels who stand before God. Seven “Angels of the Presence” have a well-documented history in Jewish literature, possibly commencing with Isaiah 63:9, which mentions “an angel of his [God’s] presence” (compare Lk 1:19, “I am Gavri’el,” the angel answered him, “and I stand in the presence of God.”), and Ezekiel 9:2, which speaks of “six men…with slaughter weapons, and one man among them clothed in linen with a writer’s ink well at his side,” to whom God speaks. In the Apocrypha, Rafa’el identifies himself as “one of the seven holy angels” (Tobit 12:15). 1 Enoch 20  gives the names and functions of seven “holy angels who watch”: Uri’el, Rafa’el, Ragu’el, Mikha’el, Saraka’el, Gavri’el and Remi’el. The first four are called “ministering angels” (“mal’akhey-hasharet”) in the Talmud, the siddur, and the kabbalah;


45) During this silence, the seven angels were given trumpets, significant to John, because he was a Jew and understood the place of trumpets in Israel’s national life. According to Num 10, trumpets had three important uses: they called the people together (Num 10:1-8); they announced war (Num 10:9); and they announced special times (Num 10:10). The trumpet sounded at Mount Sinai when the Law was given (Ex 19:16-19), and trumpets were blown when the king was anointed and enthroned (1 Kings 1:34,39). Of course, everyone familiar with the Old Testament would remember the trumpets at the conquest of Jericho (Josh 6:13-16).


46) The angel fulfills a task assigned to a priest in the earthly temple. In some other Jewish texts (including in the Old Testament, in Ps 141:2), prayers are presented as incense.


47) On the Day of Atonement (Yom Kipur), the high priest would put incense on the coals in the censer and, with the blood of the sacrifice, enter the holy of holies (Lev 16:11-14). But in this scene, the angel put the incense on the altar (presented the prayers before God) and then cast the coals from the altar to the earth! The parallel in Ezek 10 indicates that this symbolized God’s judgment; and the effects described in Rev 8:5 substantiate this view. A storm is about to begin! (see Rev 4:5; 11:19; 16:18)

Like it or not, the prayers of God’s people are involved in the judgments that He sends. The throne and the altar are related. The purpose of prayer, it has often been said, is not to get man’s will done in heaven, but to get God’s will done on earth – even if that will involves judgment.


48) Hail and fire mingled with blood” reminds us of the seventh plague that God sent against Egypt (Ex 9:18-26). The Prophet Joel also promised “blood and fire” in the last days (Joel 2:30). Since this is a supernatural judgment, it is not necessary to try to explain how hail, fire, and blood become mingled. “Fire” could refer to the lightning of a severe electrical storm.


49)  Waters running with blood would normally indicate war (e.g., Isa 15:9), but these verses also echo the first plague in Ex 7:20-21. This plague addresses contamination of the water supply, effecting not only many swift deaths by dehydration but also long-term devastation by destruction of Egypt’s irrigation and fishing (Ex 7:18) resources.

One small nuclear warhead, carried in a standard submarine torpedo, can destroy one square mile of the ocean and anything that is in it.


50) Desolation in the fresh water (vv. 10-11). God’s wrath next reaches inland and touches the rivers and fountains of water (wells and sources of the rivers), making the fresh water taste bitter Like wormwood. The National Geographic Society lists about 100 principal rivers in the world, ranging in length from the Amazon (4,000 miles long) to the Rio de la Plata (150 miles long). The U.S. Geological Survey reports thirty large rivers in the United States, beginning with the mighty Mississippi (3,710 miles long). One third of these rivers, and their sources, will become so bitterly polluted that drinking their water could produce death.

God has His stars numbered and named (Job 9:9-10). It is likely that this fallen star is molten and that, as it nears the earth, it begins to disintegrate and fall into the various bodies of water. If a star actually struck the earth, our globe would be destroyed; so this star must “come apart” as it enters the atmosphere. Of course, this event is a divinely controlled judgment; therefore, we must not try to limit it by the known laws of science.

51) The word translated “wormwood” gives us our English word absinthe, which is a popular liqueur in some countries of the world. The word means “undrinkable,” and in the Old Testament was synonymous with sorrow and great calamity. Jeremiah, “the Weeping Prophet,” often used it (Jer 9:15; 23:15; Lam 3:15,19), and so did Amos (Amos 5:7, “those who turn justice into wormwood,” NASB). Moses warned that idolatry would bring sorrow to Israel, like a root producing wormwood (Deut 29:18). Solomon warned that immorality might seem pleasant, but in the end, it produces bitterness like wormwood (Prov 5:4).

If the people who drink from these waters are in danger of dying, what must happen to the fish and other creatures that live in these waters? And what would happen to the vegetation near these rivers? If the ecologists are worried about the deadly consequences of water pollution today, what will they think when the third trumpet blows?


52) Desolation in the heavens (vv. 12-13). The judgments from the first three trumpets affected only a third part of the land and waters, but this fourth judgment affects the entire world. Why? Because it gets to the very source of the earth’s life and energy, the sun. With one third less sunlight on the earth, there will be one third less energy available to support the life systems of man and nature.

This judgment parallels the ninth plague in Egypt (Ex 10:21-23), which lasted three days. “The Day of the Lord is darkness, and not fight” (Amos 5:18). Think of the vast changes in temperatures that will occur and how these will affect human health and food growth.

It is possible that this particular judgment is temporary, for the fourth bowl judgment will reverse it, and the sun’s power will be intensified (Rev 16:8-9). Then, at the close of the Tribulation, the sun and moon will be darkened again to announce the Saviour’s return (Matt 24:29-30; see also Luke 21:25-28).


53) This fallen star is a person, the king over the beings in the pit (Rev 9:11). He does not have complete authority, for the key to the pit had to be given to him before he could loose his army. This “star” is probably Satan and the army, his demons (Eph 6:10 ff). One of the names for Satan is Lucifer, which means “brightness”; he also is compared to the “morning star” (Isa 14:12-14). Jesus said to His disciples, “I beheld Satan as lightning fall from heaven” (Luke 10:18).


54)  The army from the pit (vv. 1-12).  The “bottomless pit” is literally “the pit of the abyss.” Luke makes it clear that this “pit” is the abode of the demons (Luke 8:31), and John states that Satan will be temporarily “jailed” there during our Lord’s reign on the earth (Rev 20:1-3). The Antichrist (Le., “the beast”) will ascend out of this pit (Rev 11:7; 17:8). It is not the lake of fire, for that is the final “prison” for Satan and all who follow him (Rev 20:10), but part of that hidden underworld under the Lord’s authority. Today, the fearsome army described here is already incarcerated, waiting for the hour of liberation.


55) The normal lifespan of the locust is about five months (May to September), and this is the length of time that the judgment will last. These demons will sting people and thus create such pain that their victims will actually want to die, but death will flee from them (Jer 8:3).


56) Hebrew “Abaddon” and Greek “Apolluœn” both mean “Destroyer.” The angel of the Abyss is most likely not Satan but one of his lieutenants.


57) The army from the east (vv. 13-21). It was at the golden altar of incense that the angel offered the prayers of the saints (Rev 8:3-5); now from this same altar a voice speaks, commanding that four angels be loosed. These angels are apparently wicked, because no holy angel would be bound. Each angel is in charge of part of the vast army that follows them at their liberation, an army of 200 million beings! The army is released at a precise time, for a special purpose: to kill (not just torment) a third of the world’s population. Since a fourth of mankind has already been killed (Rev 6:8), this means that half of the worlds population will be dead by the time the sixth trumpet judgment is completed.

Are we to identify this as a literal army of men, moving in conquest across the globe? Probably not. For one thing, the emphasis in this paragraph is not on the riders, but on the horses. The description cannot fit war-horses as we know them or, for that matter, modern warfare equipment, such as tanks. To assert that this is a literal army, and to point to some nation (such as China) that claims to have 200 million soldiers, is to miss the message John is seeking to convey.

The deadly power of these horses is in their mouths and tails, not in their legs. Fire, smoke, and brimstone issue from their mouths, and their tails are Like biting serpents. They can attack men from the front as well as from the rear.

I take it that this is another demonic army, headed by four fallen angels; and that all of them are today bound by the Lord, unable to act until God gives them permission. Why they are bound at the Euphrates River is not explained, though that area is the cradle of civilization (Gen 2:14), not to mention one of the boundaries for Israel (Gen 15:18).


58) The description of the angel (vv. 1-4). This angel amazes us, for he has some of the characteristics that belong especially to the Lord Jesus Christ. John had seen and heard a “strong angel” (Rev 5:2), and the same Greek word is here translated “mighty.” All angels excel in strength (Ps 103:20), but apparently some have greater power and authority than others. This may have been another of the Archangels.

We first saw the rainbow around the throne of God (Rev 4:3); now it sits like a crown on the head of this messenger. The rainbow was God’s sign to mankind that He would never again destroy the world with a flood. Even in wrath, God remembers His mercy (Hab 3:2). Whoever this angel is, he has the authority of God’s throne given to him.

God is often identified with clouds. God led Israel by a glorious cloud (Ex 16:10), and dark clouds covered Sinai when the Law was given (Ex 19:9). When God appeared to Moses, it was in a cloud of glory (Ex 24:15 ff; 34:5). “[He] maketh the clouds His chariot” (Ps 104:3). A cloud received Jesus when He ascended to heaven (Acts 1:9); and, when He returns, it will be with clouds (Rev 1:7).

The fact that the angel’s face is “as the sun”,  reminds us of the description of Moses as he came down off of the mountain after meeting with God.


59) His right foot on the sea and his left foot on the land, symbolizing the fact that this angel’s mission involves the whole world.


60)  It was customary to lift up the hand toward heaven, appealing to the God of truth, in a solemn oath.


61) The directions that the angel gave to John (Rev 10:8-11) should remind us of our responsibility to assimilate the Word of God and make it a part of the inner man. It was not enough for John to see the book or even know its contents and purpose. He had to receive it into his inner being.

62) God’s Word is compared to food: bread (Matt 4:4), milk (1 Peter 2:2), meat (1 Cor 3:1-2), and honey (Ps 119:103). The Prophets Jeremiah (Jer 15:16) and Ezekiel (Ezek 2:9-3:4) knew what it was to “eat” the Word before they could share it with others. The Word must always “become flesh” (John 1:14) before it can be given to those who need it. Woe unto that preacher or teacher who merely echoes God’s Word and does not incarnate it, making it a living part of his very being.

God will not thrust His Word into our mouths and force us to receive it. He hands it to us and we must take it. Nor can He change the effects the Word will have in our lives: there will be both sorrow and joy, bitterness and sweetness. God’s Word contains sweet promises and assurances, but it also contains bitter warnings and prophecies of judgment. The Christian bears witness of both life and death (2 Cor 2:14-17). The faithful minister will declare all of God’s counsel (Acts 20:27). He will not dilute the message of God simply to please his listeners (2 Tim 4:1-5).


63)   The place is Jerusalem and the time is the first half of the Tribulation. Israel is worshiping again at its restored temple, built under the protection of the Antichrist, whose true character has not yet been revealed. To spiritualize Rev 11:1-2 and make the temple refer to the church creates a number of serious problems. For one ding, how could John measure an invisible body of people, even if the church were still on earth? If the temple is the church, then who are the worshipers and what is the altar? And since the church unites Jews and Gentiles in one body (Eph 2:11 ff), why are the Gentiles segregated in this temple? It seems wisest to interpret this temple as an actual building in the holy city of Jerusalem (Neh 11:1,18; Dan 9:24).

John’s measurement of the temple is a symbolic action. To measure something means to claim it for yourself. When we sold our house in Chicago, the new owners brought in an architect to measure various areas and recommend possible changes. Had the architect shown up previous to the buyers’ commitment, we would have thrown him out. The Lord was saying through John, “I own this city and this temple, and I claim both for Myself!” The Old Testament background is found in Ezek 40-41 and Zech 2:1-3.


64) What John did was especially significant because the Gentiles had taken over Jerusalem. Antichrist had broken his agreement with Israel (Dan 9:27) and now he was about to use the temple for his own diabolical purposes (2 Thess 2:3-4). All of this will be elaborated in Rev 13. “Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the Gentiles,” said Jesus, “until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled” (Luke 21:24). The “times of the Gentiles” began in  606 B.C. when Babylon began to devastate Judah and Jerusalem, and it will continue until Jesus Christ returns to deliver the Holy City and redeem Israel (Zech 14).


65) Note that the two witnesses minister during the first half of the Tribulation (Rev 11:3; 1,260 days). Jerusalem is then overrun by the Gentiles for forty-two months, the last half of the Tribulation. This gives us the 7 years of Tribulation.


66) Their witness is related to Israel and the temple. How tragic that the power of God and the Word of God will be outside the temple and not within as in former ages. Like the temple that Jesus left, this new house will be desolate (see Matt 23:38). These two men are specifically called prophets (Rev 11:3,6), and I take this to mean prophetic ministry in the Old Testament sense, calling the nations to repent and return to the true God of Israel.

Not only do these witnesses declare God’s words, but they also do God’s works and perform miracles of judgment, reminding us of both Moses and Elijah (Ex 7:14-18; 1 Kings 17:1 ff; 2 Kings 1:1-12). Some students cite Mal 4:5-6 as evidence that one of the witnesses may be Elijah, but Jesus applied that prophecy to John the Baptist (Matt 17:10-13). John the Baptist, however, denied that he was Elijah returned to earth (John 1:21,25; see also Luke 1:16-17). This confusion may be explained in part by realizing that throughout Israel’s history, God sent special messengers – “Elijahs” – to call His people to repentance; so in this sense, Malachi’s prophecy will be fulfilled by the witnesses.

Instead of relating the ministry of the witnesses to Moses and Elijah, the angel who spoke to John connected their ministry with Zerubbabel and Joshua the high priest (Zech 4). These two men helped to reestablish Israel in Palestine and to rebuild the temple. It was a discouraging task, and the Gentiles made it even more difficult; but God provided the special power they needed to get the work done. This truth is an encouragement to God’s servants in all ages, for the work of the Lord is never easy.


67) This comes only when they have finished their testimony. God’s obedient servants are immortal until their work is done. “The beast” (Antichrist) is now in power and wants to take over the temple; but he cannot succeed until the two witnesses are out of the way. God will permit him to slay them, for no one will be able to make war against “the beast” and win (Rev 13:4).


68) The witnesses will not even be permitted decent burial (see Ps 79:1-3). But even this indecency will be used by God to bear witness to mankind. No doubt the TV cameras in Jerusalem will transmit the scene to people around the world, and the news analysts will discuss its significance. The earth-dwellers will rejoice at their enemies’ removal and will celebrate a “satanic Christmas” by sending gifts to one another. It thus would appear that the power of the two witnesses will not be limited to Jerusalem, but that they will be able to cause things to happen in other parts of the world.

These two prophets will definitely have a relationship with Israel; and the world, for the most part, has not approved of the nation Israel. In the middle of the Tribulation, “the beast” will turn against Israel and begin to persecute the Jews. The two witnesses will not be around to protect the nation and a frightening anti-Semitic movement will ensue.


69) Jerusalem is called a “great city” (Rev 11:8); and from a human viewpoint, this is a true statement. But God looks at men and nations from a spiritual viewpoint. To Him, Jerusalem will be considered as polluted and worldly as Sodom and as rebellious and proud as Egypt.


70) This may point to the rapture of the believers along with the two witnesses. This thought is called mid tribulation rapture.


71) An announcement of victory (v. 15). These “great voices” were probably the choirs of heaven. The great announcement is that the kingdom (John uses the singular because “the beast” now has the world under his control) of this world belongs to Jesus Christ. Of course, Christ does not claim His royal rights until He returns; but the victory has already been won. Satan offered Him the world’s kingdoms, but He refused the offer (Matt 4:8-9). Instead, He died on the cross, arose, and returned victoriously to heaven; and there the Father gave Him His inheritance (Ps 2:4-9).


72) This is the final judgement of all people, when each person great and small will have to answer for the choices they have made in life and face either eternal glory or eternal punishment.

73) In the Old Testament tabernacle and temple, the ark stood behind the veil, in the holy of holies. God’s glory rested on the ark, and God’s Law was within the ark, beautifully illustrating that the two must never be separated. He is the holy God and must deal righteously with sin. But He is also the faithful God who keeps His promises to His people. It was the ark of God that led Israel through the Jordan and into their inheritance (Josh 3:11-17). This vision of the ark would greatly encourage God’s suffering people to whom John sent this book. “God will fulfill His promises!” John was saying to them. “He will reveal His glory! Trust Him”‘


74) John’s vision opens with two wonders in heaven (Rev 12:1-6). The first is a woman giving birth to a son. Since this child is identified as Jesus Christ (compare Rev 12:5 with Rev 19:15 and Ps 2:9), this symbolic woman can be none other than the nation Israel. It was through Israel that Jesus Christ came into the world (Rom 1:3; 9:4-5). By further comparing the description in Rev 12:1 with Gen 37:9-10, the identification seems certain.

In the Old Testament, Israel is often compared to a woman, and even a woman in travail (Isa 54:5; 66:7; Jer 3:6-10; Mic 4:10; 5:2-3).


75) The great red dragon is the second. Rev 12:9 makes it clear that this is Satan. The color red is associated with death (Rev 6:4) and Satan is a murderer (John 8:44). The heads, horns, and crowns will appear again in Rev 13:1 and 17:3. The heads represent mountains (Rev 17:9), and the horns represent kings (Rev 17:12). We shall study the meaning of these symbols in more detail later.

The dragon was cast out of heaven (Rev 12:9), and he took with him a third of the angels (Rev 12:7,9). They are spoken of as “stars” in Rev 12:4 (see also Dan 8:10). This is evidently a reference to the fall of Satan (Isa 14:12-15), when he and his hosts revolted against God. However, the casting out described in Rev 12:7-10 is yet future.

The color implies the dragon’s fiery rage as a murderer from the beginning. His representative, the beast, corresponds, having seven heads and ten horns, (the number of horns on the fourth beast, Dan 7.) But in Rev 13:1, ten crowns are on the ten horns (for, before the end, the fourth empire is divided into ten kingdoms); here, seven crowns are upon his seven heads. In Dan 7, the anti-Christian powers, up to Christ’s second coming, are represented by four beasts, having among them seven heads – i.e., the first, second, and fourth beasts having one head each; the third, four heads. His universal dominion as prince of this fallen world is implied by the seven diadems (contrast the ‘many diadems on Christ’s head,’ Rev 19:12, when coming to destroy him and his), caricaturing the seven spirits of God. His worldly instruments of power are the ten horns, ten being the world-number. The ten horns, among which subsequently arose the little horn, seem earlier in the fourth kingdom; and the little horn, which plucks up three, the temporal papacy. The ten crowned horns, which receive power with the beast, are at the close of the fourth kingdom. The little horn ‘wears out the saints’ for “a time, and times, and the dividing of time;” but the beast’s reign with the ten kings is but “one hour” (cf. Dan 7:7-8,20-22,24-26, with Rev 17:12-13,16-17). ‘The judgment takes away the little horn’s dominion, consumes and destroys it unto the end’ by a lengthened process; but ‘the beast is (summarily) slain, and his body given to the burning flame’ (cf. Rev 19:20-21). It marks his self-contradictions that he and the beast bear both seven (the divine) and ten (the world-number).


76) The dragon was cast out of heaven (Rev 12:9), and he took with him a third of the angels (Rev 12:7,9). They are spoken of as “stars” in Rev 12:4 (see also Dan 8:10). This is evidently a reference to the fall of Satan (Isa 14:12-15), when he and his hosts revolted against God. However, the casting out described in Rev 12:7-10 is yet future.


77) Just as soon as the child was born, Satan tried to destroy Him. This conflict between Satan and “the woman” began soon after man fell (Gen 3:15). Throughout Old Testament history, Satan tried to prevent the birth of the Redeemer. There was always a “dragon” standing by, waiting to destroy Israel or the ancestors of the Messiah. Pharaoh is called a “dragon” (Ezek 29:3), and so is Nebuchadnezzar (Jer 51:34). At one critical point, the royal line was limited to one little boy (2 Kings 11:1-3). When Jesus Christ was born, Satan used King Herod to try to destroy Him (Matt 2). Satan thought that he had succeeded when he used Judas to betray the Lord and hand Him over to be crucified. But the Cross was actually Satan’s defeat! “And they overcame him [Satan] by the blood of the Lamb” (Rev 12:11).


78) The son is born and is then caught up to the throne of God (Rev 12:5). We have symbolized here the birth of Christ and His victorious ascension, but nothing is said about either His life or His death. The colon in the middle of the verse represents thirty-three years of history!


79) Satan’s strategy is to persecute God’s people and devour them if possible (1 Peter 5:8). He has a special hatred for the Jewish people and has been the power behind anti-Semitism from the days of Pharaoh and Haman (see the Book of Esther) to Hitler and Stalin. Finally, in the middle of the Tribulation, there will come a wave of anti-Semitism such as the world has never seen (Rev 12:6).


80) But God will protect His people during those three-and-a-half years (1,260 days; see Rev 11:2; 13:5).Apart from the 144,000 (who are sealed and protected), a believing remnant of Jews will survive this very troublesome tune. We are not told where God will protect them or who it is that will care for them. Matt 24:15-21 will take on special meaning for those believing Jews who live in the end days.


81) The next scene in this cosmic drama is a war in heaven (Rev 12:7-12). Scripture makes it clear that Satan has access to heaven even today (Job 1-2). Once he was the highest of God’s angels, but he rebelled against God and was cast down (Isa 14:12-15).

What is this celestial conflict all about? The fact that Michael led God’s angels to victory is significant, because Michael is identified with the nation Israel (Dan 10:10-21; 12:1; note also Jude 9). The name Michael means “who is like God?” and this certainly parallels Satan’s egocentric attack on Jehovah – “I will be like the Most High” (Isa 14:14). Apparently, the devil’s hatred of Israel will spur him to make one final assault against the throne of God, but he will be defeated by Michael and a heavenly host.


82) Devil – Greek for ‘accuser,’ ‘slanderer.’ Satan – Hebrew for adversary, especially in a court of justice. The twofold designation marks the twofold objects of his accusations and temptations-the elect, Gentiles and Jews.


83) Verses 10, 11, and 12 are most likely an early church hymn.


84) Christ’s shed blood gives us our perfect standing before God (1 John 1:5-2:2). But our witness to God’s Word and our willingness to lay down our lives for Christ defeats Satan as well. Satan is not equal to God; he is not omnipotent, omnipresent, or omniscient. His power is limited and his tactics must fail when God’s people trust the power of the blood and of the Word. Nothing Satan does can rob us of “salvation, and strength, and the kingdom of our God, and the power of His Christ” (Rev 12:10), if we are yielded to Him. God’s great purposes will be fulfilled!

Believers in any age or situation can rejoice in this victory, no matter how difficult their experiences may be. Our warfare is not against flesh and blood, but against the spiritual forces of the wicked one; and these have been defeated by our Savior).


85) God will prepare a special place where the Jewish remnant will be protected and cared for. It is interesting that the remnant’s escape from Satan is described in terms of a flying eagle, for this is a repeated image in the Old Testament with reference to Israel. God delivered Israel from Egypt “on eagles’ wings” (Ex 19:4), and cared for the people in the wilderness as an eagle would her young (Deut 32:11-12). Their return from Babylonian Captivity was Like “mounting up with wings as eagles” (Isa 40:31).


86) The phrase “water as a flood” is not explained, but there is a parallel in Ps 124. (Also note the phrase “escaped as a bird” in verse 7 of this same Psalm.) This “flood” is probably an outpouring of hatred and anti-Semitic propaganda. Or it may symbolize armies that invade Israel and seek to defeat the remnant. If that is the meaning, then the earth opening up could well be an earthquake that God sends to destroy the invaders.


87) When Satan discovers that the people he seeks to kill are protected, then he turns on those who were not carried to the hidden place of safety. He will declare war, and God will permit him to have victory for a time (Rev 13:7); but ultimately, the old serpent will be defeated.


88)  The fact that the beast comes out from the sea indicates that he is a Gentile, for the sea of humanity is involved as his source (cf. Rev 17:15).


89) Many have said that the beast refers to some character in past history, but the context clearly refers to the final three and one-half years before Christ’s second coming. Under the control of this central ruler in the Middle East during the Great Tribulation will be 10 nations (cf. Dan 7:24, “The 10 horns are 10 kings”).


90) The seven implies the world-power assuming Godhead, and caricaturing the seven spirits of God; its God-opposed character is detected by ten accompanying the seven. Dragon and beast both bear crowns-the former on the heads, the latter on the horns (Rev 12:3; 5:1)


91) Both heads and horns refer to kingdoms: in Rev 17:7,10,12, “kings” represent kingdoms whose heads they are. The seven kings-the great powers of the world-are distinguished from the ten, represented by the horns (simply “kings,” Rev 17:12), The ten mean the last phase of the world-power, the fourth kingdom divided into ten parts.


92) Name of blasphemy., a name on each of the heads; blasphemously claiming attributes

93) The four beasts of Daniel are four kingdoms; and most scholars identify them as Babylon, Persia, Greece and Rome. Since all are ancient history, futurists expect the beast of vv. 1-8 to be a revived Roman Empire, or a nation covering the same territory, or a nation in which the brutal and depraved spirit of the Roman Empire finds expression. C. I. Scofield, expressing the Dispensationalist view, regards the head with a fatal wound (v. 3) as the restored Roman Empire, which is “dead” now but will live again, to everyone’s amazement. A few years ago the “newspaper exegetes” (1:1) saw the fulfillment of this prophecy in the ten members of the European Common Market. The fact that the Common Market now comprises more than ten participating nations does not necessarily disprove the futurist approach.

Non-futurists sometimes make this beast an allegory of all Satanic power mobilized against God’s people on earth, especially governmental power (as opposed to religious).


94) The power of the beast was derived from Satan himself: the dragon gave the beast his power and his throne and great authority. This accords with Paul (2 Thess 2:9) who referred to “the lawless one” (i.e., the Antichrist, this first beast of Rev 13) as working “all kinds of counterfeit miracles.


95) The seven heads of the beast seem to represent important rulers, and one of them, probably the seventh, suffered a fatal wound caused by a sword (v. 14), which was subsequently healed, causing astonishment in the entire world.

Many have attempted to identify this beast as someone in the past or present who is to become the final world ruler. Among the suggestions have been Nero, Judas Iscariot, Mussolini, Hitler, Stalin, Kissinger, and many others; but such men obviously do not fit the details of this yet-future ruler.

What is the meaning of the fatal wound that is healed? Two possibilities seem to fit this description. Alford, for instance, sees the deadly wound as the destruction of “the Roman pagan Empire” by “the Christian Roman Empire,” thus making it a matter of history rather than prophecy (The Greek Testament, 4: 675). The revival of the Roman Empire would then be its miraculous healing. Another plausible explanation is that the final world ruler receives a wound which normally would be fatal but is miraculously healed by Satan. While the resurrection of a dead person seems to be beyond Satan’s power, the healing of a wound would be possible for Satan, and this may be the explanation. The important point is that the final world ruler comes into power obviously supported by a supernatural and miraculous deliverance by Satan himself.


96) The supernatural character of the beast makes him the object of worship along with Satan, the source of his power. It has always been Satan’s purpose to receive the worship due to God alone, as stated in Isa 14:14: “I will make myself like the Most High.” This is Satan’s final form of counterfeit religion in which he assumes the place of God the Father, and the beast or the world ruler assumes the role of King of kings as a substitute for Christ. This situation is probably introduced at the beginning of the last three and one-half years when the Great Tribulation begins.


97) Recognizing the supernatural character of Satan and the ruler, the question is raised, Who is like the beast? Who can make war against him? (Rev 13:4)


98) This apparently explains how the beast could become world ruler without a war. His blasphemous assumption of the role of God continues for 42 months, during which time he blasphemes God as well as heaven and those who live in heaven.

99)  The beast becomes a worldwide ruler, for his authority extends over every tribe, people, language, and nation. As predicted in Dan 7:23, he does “devour the whole earth, trampling it down and crushing it.”

In addition to achieving political domination over the entire world, he also abolishes all other religions and demands that everyone worship him (cf. 2 Thess 2:4). All inhabitants of the earth worship the beast except for those whose names are recorded in the book of life. In the expression the Lamb that was slain from the Creation of the world, the words “from the Creation of the world” seem, as in the NIV margin, to relate to the time in eternity past when the names were written in the book of life, rather than to Christ’s crucifixion, since He was not crucified when the world was created. As Paul wrote, those who were saved were foreordained to salvation before Creation (cf. Eph 1:4).


100) The whole earth followed after the beast and worshipped it, except for believers in Jesus, those whose names are written in the Book of Life( belonging to the Lamb), Jesus, slaughtered before the world was founded (God planned his atoning death before creating the world; 5:6&N, Ep 1:3-12, Co 1:14-23).


101) The language is from Jerimiah 15:2 and 43:11, where God promises to exterminate most of the Israelites by various means and to enslave the others in captivity; but the judgment here is against all nations who have rebelled against God. This judgment would encourage the martyred saints concerning their vindication (Rev 14:11-12).


102) In contrast with the first beast who came “out of the sea” (v. 1), the second beast came out of the earth. He was similar to the first beast. However, while the first beast was a Gentile, since he came from the entire human race as symbolized by “the sea” (v. 1), the second beast was a creature of the earth. Some have taken this as a specific reference to the Promised Land and have argued that he was therefore a Jew. There is no support for this in the context as the word for “earth” is the general word referring to the entire world . Actually his nationality and geographic origin are not indicated, and he is apparently the one referred to as “the false prophet” in 19:20 and 20:10.


103) The second beast had two horns like a lamb, but he spoke like a dragon, that is, like Satan. From this it can be gathered that he was a religious character whose role was to support the political ruler, the first beast. He had great authority apparently derived from Satan and the political ruler, and he made the earth and its inhabitants worship the first beast, the one whose fatal wound had been healed.

The false religious system, which was supported in this way imitated the divine Trinity. Satan seeks to take the place of God the Father; the first beast assumes the place of Jesus Christ, the Son, the King of kings; and the second beast, the false prophet, has a role similar to the Holy Spirit who causes Christians to worship God. This is Satan’s final attempt to substitute a false religion for true faith in Christ.


104) To induce people to worship the first beast, the second beast performs great and miraculous signs, including fire…from heaven. People sometimes overlook the fact that, while God can do supernatural things, Satan within certain limitations can also perform miracles, and he used this power to the full in this situation to induce people to worship Satan’s substitute for Christ. Accordingly the second beast deceived the inhabitants of the earth.


105) In addition to causing fire to come down from heaven, the second beast set up an image of the first beast. The image was probably set up in the first temple in Jerusalem which was taken over from the Jews. According to Paul (2 Thess 2:4) the first beast actually sat in God’s temple at times and received worship which properly belonged to God. Perhaps the beast’s image was placed in the same temple to provide an object of worship when the beast himself was not there.


106) The fact that the second beast could give breath to the image of the first beast, even making it speak, has created problems for expositors, for the Bible does not seem to indicate that Satan has the power to give life to an inanimate object. Only God is the Creator. So probably the beast’s image is able to give an impression of breathing and speaking mechanically, like computerized talking robots today. There might be a combination of natural and supernatural powers to enable the beast out of the earth to accomplish his purpose. It apparently was quite convincing to people and induced them to worship the image.


107) The command to worship the image as well as the first beast was enforced by killing those who refused to do so. But there was a difference between the decree to put them to death and its execution. The problem of ferreting out everyone in the entire earth who would not worship the beast would naturally take time. Hitler, in his attempt to exterminate the Jews, took many months and never completed his task. The multitude of martyrs is referred to in 7:9-17.


108)  Enforcing his control over the human race and encouraging worship of the beast out of the sea, the second beast required everyone…to receive a mark on his right hand or on his forehead, and without this evidence that he had worshiped the beast no one could buy or sell. The need to buy or sell such necessities as food and clothing would force each person in the entire world to decide whether to worship the beast or to bear the penalty. Apparently the great majority worshiped the beast.


109) There has been much speculation on the insignia or “mark” of the beast, but it could be any of several kinds of identification. Countless attempts have been made to interpret the number 666, usually using the numerical equivalents of letters in the Hebrew, Greek, or other alphabets. As there probably have been hundreds of explanations continuing down to the present day, it is obvious that if the number refers to an individual it is not clear to whom it refers.


110) Probably the best interpretation is that the number six is one less than the perfect number seven, and the threefold repetition of the six would indicate that for all their pretensions to deity, Satan and the two beasts were just creatures and not the Creator. That six is man’s number is illustrated in many instances in the Bible, including the fact that man should work six days and rest the seventh.


111)  “And I looked, and behold” indicates another vision (Ezek 10:1; 44:4; Dan 10:5). Mount Zion was the Temple Mount (sometimes loosely encompassing all Jerusalem), thus applied to the heavenly temple in the present (Rev 11:19) but pointing to the new Jerusalem of the future (21:2), a hope shared by nearly all ancient Jews, who longed for the restoration of their city and its sanctuary. Mount Zion thus figures prominently in *apocalyptic expectations (it appears by that title in *4 Ezra and *2 Baruch).


112)  First, another view is given of the 144,000 who were standing on Mount Zion with the Lamb. It is reasonable to conclude that this is the same group mentioned in 7:4-8, except that here they are in a later period of the Tribulation. Chronologically the vision anticipates the triumph of the 144,000 still intact at the time of Jesus Christ’s return from heaven to earth. In contrast with many others who become martyrs, these people live through the period. But they are not the only ones to survive, as many Gentiles and Jews will turn to Christ in the end time and somehow escape martyrdom and be honored to welcome Christ at His return.


113) The song is that of victory after conflict with the dragon, beast, and false prophet: never sung before; for such a conflict was never fought before. Until now Christ’s kingdom on earth was usurped. They sing the new son in anticipation of His taking possession of His blood-bought kingdom with His saints.


114) Virgins – spiritually (Matt 25:1): in contrast to the apostate church, Babylon (Rev 14:8), ‘a harlot’ (Rev 17:1-5; Isa 1:21). Their not being defiled with women means they were not led astray from Christian faithfulness by the spiritual ‘harlot.’


115) Being the – rather, ‘as a first-fruit.’ Not merely in the sense in which all believers are so (James 1:18), but Israel’s 144,000 elect are the first-fruit; the Gentile elect, of “every nation, kindred, tongue, and people,” who refuse to worship the beast, are the harvest: in a further sense, the whole transfigured and translated Church, which reigns with Christ at His coming, is the first-fruit, and the consequent universal ingathering of Israel and the nations, ending in the last judgment, is the full harvest.


116) The Greek word here is euaggelion (yoo-ang ghel-ion) it means good news and is often translated as gospel. Here it is better translated as good news. The angel’s “good news” is the vindication of God’s people by judgment on the wicked. Because the activity of angels in heaven often corresponds to what happens on earth, however (12:7), this picture may refer, as some commentators have suggested, to the final proclamation of the good news of the *kingdom (including both salvation and vindication /judgment) preceding the end.


117) She has fallen! She has fallen! Babylon the Great! This cry, combining Isaiah 21:9 with Daniel 4:21, is repeated at 18:2, when the destruction of Babylon is being detailed (chapters 17-18). In the Tanakh Babylon epitomizes evil. Already in Genesis 11 it is the site of the Tower of Babel. In Isaiah 14 the king of Babylon is a thinly veiled stand-in for Satan (especially Isaiah 14:12-16). Following are discussions of four possible meanings for “Babylon” here and at 16:19; 17:5; 18:2, 10, 21.

(1) Literal Babylon. Babylon was located on the Euphrates River (16:12) and was crisscrossed by canals (“sitting on many waters,” 17:1, alluding to Jeremiah 51:13, “O you who dwell on many waters, abundant in treasures, your end has come, and the measure of your greed.”). But against a literal interpretation is 17:15, which interprets the “waters” figuratively, and Jeremiah’s prophecy that Babylon’s “desolation” would be “everlasting” (Jeremiah 25:12; also Isaiah 13:19-22 and most extensively Jeremiah 50:1-51:64).

(2) Rome. The arguments in favor of Babylon as a codeword for Rome are weighty. Rome was widely known as the city set on seven hills (17:9). “Babylon” was a common euphemism for “Rome” in the Pseudepigrapha (2 Baruch 11:1, 67:7; Sibylline Oracles 5:143, 159) and in rabbinic writings.  Because Rome’s political power has declined since the book of Revelation was written, making the literal understanding of Rome less relevant, there are Protestants who equate Babylon with Rome and Rome with Roman Catholicism, turning the passage into an anti-Catholic polemic.

(3) The wicked world-system, ruled in the spiritual realm by Satan and ultimately in the physical world by the anti-Messiah. Viewing Babylon allegorically as the evil world-system accords with the extensive description of the rule of the anti-Messiah in chapters 12-13 and the return of this imagery in the immediate context (vv. 9-11).

(4) The ungodly in general. This less specific understanding of Babylon the Great as the ungodly in general as over against the godly would derive from a hermeneutic that interprets the whole book along such figurative lines (see 1:1).


118)  John in his vision next saw seated on a white cloud one like a Son of Man wearing a crown of gold and holding a sharp sickle. Though some have identified “a Son of Man” as an angel, it is more probable that it is Christ Himself who is frequently called “the Son of Man”. In the Book of Matthew alone this title is ascribed to Christ more than 25 times (Matt 8:20; 9:6; 11:19; 12:8,32; 13:41; etc.). The sickle in His hand suggests judgment. And this is supported by the messages of the three angels (Rev 14:15-20).


119) An angel called out to Christ to reap, because the harvest of the earth is ripe. The ripeness is in the sense of withered or overripe.


120) From the altar – upon which were offered the incense-accompanied prayers of all saints, which bring down in answer God’s fiery judgment on the Church’s foes, the fire being taken from the altar and cast upon the earth (Rev 6:9-11; 8:3-5).


121) The grape harvest is often a picture of judgment (see Joel 3:13 ff, which anticipates the Day of the Lord). In actuality, Scripture portrays three different “vines.” Israel was God’s vine, planted in the land to bear fruit for God’s glory; but the nation failed God and had to be cut down (Ps 80:8-16; Isa 5:1-7; see also Matt 21:33-46). Today, Christ is the Vine and believers are branches in Him (John 15). But the world system is also a vine, “the vine’ of the earth” in contrast to Christ, the heavenly Vine; and it is ripening for judgment. The wicked system – Babylon – that intoxicates people and controls them, will one day be cut down and destroyed in “the winepress of the wrath of God.”


122) Without the city – Jerusalem. The scene of blood-shedding of Christ and His people shall be also the scene of God’s vengeance on the anti-Christian foe


123) The custom was to produce grape juice by trampling on grapes in a winepress. The result here, however, is different. Blood flowed out of the press rising as high as the horses’ bridles for a distance of 1,600 stadia, about 180 miles. While this distance may be literal and may designate the area of judgment as around the city of Jerusalem, it is of course impossible for the blood to reach a height where it would touch horses’ bridles. What this affirms is a tremendous bloodletting in which blood is spattered as high as the bridles of horses. This is a graphic picture of a great slaughter (Isa 63:1-3). Other Scriptures (e.g., Rev 16:14; Dan 11:40-45) make it clear that there will be a world war of tremendous scope underway at the time of the second coming of Christ, and this may be a partial fulfillment of these prophecies.

124) The sea may symbolize baptism into the family of God. It is also a reminder of God leading the Hebrew people out of Egypt and through the Red Sea and bringing a victory over their enemies. The fire may represent the Holy Spirit and its part in baptism and the Christian life. It also, may represent the trials that the believers have gone through.


125)   just as the Israelites stood by the Red Sea after their Egyptian pursuers were drowned in it. At that time the Israelites sang the song of Moses (Exodus 15:1-18; see 13:4&N), which is included in its entirety in the daily morning synagogue service and liberally quoted again in the twice-daily blessing after the Shema. The victors over the beast will sing the Song of Moses, signifying that true believers in Jesus fully identify with the Jewish people.

The song of the Lamb, as given in vv. 3 b-4, is not sung to or about the Lamb, but by the Lamb to God—just as the Song of Moses was sung by Moses and not to him. Just as the victorious Jewish people learned and sang the song which Moses sang (Exodus 15:1), so the victorious believers in heaven learn and sing the song which the Lamb sings. Like the Song of Moses the Song of the Lamb exults in the just ways of God, using the language of the Tanakh as found in Jeremiah 10:7; Amos 3:13, 4:13; Malachi 1:11; Psalms 86:9-10, 92:6(5), 98:1, 111:2, 139:14, 145:17; 1 Chronicles 16:9, 12. But unlike the Song of Moses it also brings out that in the final judgment God is revealed as king of the nations, king of the whole world, as prophesied in Zechariah 14:9, so that all nations will come and worship before him—as predicted in the continuation of that passage (Zechariah 14:16-20).


126) The sanctuary (that is, the Tent of Witness). The word “tent” appears only here in Revelation. If there was a Hebrew original underlying our Greek text, this phrase, unique in ancient literature, could be explained as a corruption of “the Temple of God in heaven,” which appears with the same verb (“was opened”) at 11:19. If the phrase stands as translated, the “sanctuary” is the Holy of Holies, which was also the location (or “tent”) of the ark of the Covenant (MJ 9:4&N), called the ark of the Testimony throughout Exodus 25-40. Verse 8 supports this rendering, for we read that the smoke from God’s Shekhinah glory filled the sanctuary; in Exodus and Ezekiel God’s glory inhabited the sanctuary. These final “bowl” plagues come from God’s ultimate holiness.


127) The clean, shining linen of the angels indicates their purity, and the golden sashes around their chests point to the glory of God.


128) The seven angels emerge from the heavenly temple (see Rev 11:19), because their work is holy as are the judgments they bring. The angels’ clothing reminds us of the priestly garments, for their service is a divine ministry. When the Old Testament tabernacle and temple were dedicated, these earthly buildings were filled with God’s glory (Ex 40:34-35; 2 Chron 7:1-4); but now the heavenly temple is filled with smoke (see Isa 6:4; Ezek 10:4). This smoke likewise is evidence of God’s glory and power.


129) This vial judgment reminds us of the sixth plague in Egypt (Ex 9:8-12; note also Deut 28:27,35). Only those who have submitted to “the beast” and who have rejected the warning of the first angel will experience this judgment (Rev 14:6-7).


130) Waters turned to blood (vv. 3-6).  The second and third vials parallel the first plague in Egypt (Ex 7:14-25). The second vial will center on the sea, and the third will turn the Hand waters (rivers and fountains) into blood. When the second trumpet judgment occurred, a third part of the sea became blood; but with this judgment, the entire system of seas and oceans will be polluted. The third trumpet made a third part of the inland waters bitter as wormwood; but the third vial will turn all of those bitter waters into blood.

131) Heaven gives justification for this terrible judgment: the earth-dwellers have shed the blood of God’s people, so it is only right that they should drink blood. In God’s government, the punishment fits the crime. Pharaoh tried to drown the Jewish boy babies, but it was his own army that eventually drowned in the Red Sea. Haman planned to hang Mordecai on the gallows and to exterminate the Jews; but he himself was hanged on the gallows, and his family was exterminated (Est 7:10; 9:10). King Saul refused to obey God and slay the Amalekites, so he was slain by an Amalekite (2 Sam 1:1-16).


132)  This is not worldwide darkness; only “the beast,” his throne, and his kingdom are affected. This reminds us of the fifth trumpet (Rev 9:2) and the ninth plague (Ex 10:21-23). Where is the throne of “the beast”? His image is in the temple in Jerusalem, so that may be the center of his operation. Or perhaps he is ruling from Rome, in cooperation with the apostate church headquartered there.

When God sent the ninth plague to Egypt, the entire land was dark, except for Goshen where the Israelites lived. The judgment of the fifth vial is just the opposite: there is light for the world, but darkness reigns at the headquarters of “the beast”! Certainly this will be a great blow to his “image” throughout the earth.


133) The Euphrates dried up (vv. 12-16). This famous river was mentioned earlier in Revelation, when the sixth trumpet sounded (Rev 9:13 ff) and the angels were loosed who were bound therein. At that time, an army of demonic horsemen was also released. Now, an army from the nations of the world gathers for the great battle at Armageddon. The drying up of the river will make it possible for the army of the “kings of the East” to come to Palestine and invade the Holy Land.


134) Christ’s return is often compared to the coming of a thief. It implies suddenness and unpreparedness as far as unbelievers are concerned. Just as Christians are not to be surprised by the Rapture of the church (1 Thess 5:4), so believers at the time of the Second Coming will be anticipating His return. Blessing is promised to the one who is prepared for the coming of the Lord by being attired in the righteousness or clothing which God Himself supplies.


135) We often speak of “the battle of Armageddon,” but nowhere does the Bible use that phrase. On September 2, 1945, when General Douglas MacArthur supervised signing the peace treaty with Japan, he said: “We have had our last chance. If we will not devise something greater and more equitable [than war], Armageddon will be at our door.”

The name Armageddon comes from two Hebrew words, Har Megiddo , the hill of Megiddo. The word Megiddo means. “place of troops” or “place of slaughter.” It is also called the Plain of Esdraelon and the Valley of Jezreel. The area is about fourteen miles wide and twenty miles long, and forms what Napoleon called “the most natural battlefield of the whole earth.” Standing on Mount Carmel and overlooking that great plain, you can well understand why it would be used for gathering the armies of the nations.


136)  The devil is “the prince of the power of the air,” so perhaps this seventh vial has a special effect on his dominion (Eph 2:2). But the immediate result is a devastating earthquake that affects the cities of the nations. Satan’s entire system is now about to be judged by God: his religious system (the harlot, Rev 17), his political and economic system (Babylon, Rev 18), and his military system (the armies, Rev 19).


137) The “great city” (Rev 16:19) is probably Jerusalem (see Rev 11:8). The Prophet Zechariah prophesied an earthquake that would change the topography of Jerusalem (Zech 14:4). But the key idea here is that Babylon would fall (see Jer 50-51). “The beasts” great economic system, which subjugated the people of the world, would be completely destroyed by God.


138) This evil woman symbolizes the religious system of Babylon, and the waters symbolize “peoples, multitudes, nations, and languages” (v. 15). The angel informed John that the kings of the earth had committed adultery with the woman; in other words, they had become a part of the religious system which she symbolized


139) Following the invitation, John was carried away “in the Spirit” into the wilderness. There he saw “the harlot” and wrote down the description of what he saw (Rev 17:3-6). Gen 2 speaks of a pure bride in a lovely Garden; but by the Bible’s end, civilization has degenerated to an impure harlot in a wilderness! That is what sin does to the world.


140) Upon a scarlet-coloured beast. The same as Rev 13:1: there described as here, ‘having seven heads and ten horns (betraying that he is representative of the dragon, Rev 12:3), and upon his heads name of blasphemy:’ cf. also Rev 17:12-14, below, with Rev 19:19-20, and Rev 17:13-14,16. Rome, resting on the world-power, and ruling it by the claim of supremacy, is her chief, though not exclusive, representative. As the dragon is fiery-red, so the beast is blood-red; implying blood-guiltiness, and deep dyed sin. The scarlet is also symbol of kingship.


141) The woman was dressed in purple and scarlet, and was glittering with gold, precious stones, and pearls. Her adornment is similar to that of religious trappings of ritualistic churches today. While purple, scarlet, gold, precious stones, and pearls can all represent beauty and glory in relation to the true faith, here they reveal a false religion that prostitutes the truth.


142) Mystery – a spiritual fact heretofore hidden, incapable of discovery by reason, but now revealed. As the union of Christ and the Church is a ‘great mystery’ (a momentous spiritual truth, once hidden, now revealed, Eph 5:31-32), so the Church, by conformity to the world, becoming a harlot, is a counter “mystery.” As iniquity in the harlot is a leaven working in “mystery” – i.e., latently (‘the mystery of iniquity’) – so, when she is destroyed, the iniquity shall be revealed in the man of iniquity, the open embodiment of all previous evil (2 Thess 2:7-8). Contrast the “mystery of God” and “godliness,”

Her name, which was written on her forehead. It was the custom of impudent harlots to hang out signs, with their names, that all might know what they were. Now in this observe, (1.) She is named from her place of residence—Babylon the great. But, that we might not take it for the old Babylon literally so called, we are told there is a mystery in the name; it is some other great city resembling the old Babylon. (2.) She is named from her infamous way and practice; not only a harlot, but a mother of harlots, breeding up harlots, and nursing and training them up to idolatry, and all sorts of lewdness and wickedness—the parent and nurse of all false religion and filthy conversation.

143)  Her diet: she satiated herself with the blood of the saints and martyrs of Jesus. She drank their blood with such greediness that she intoxicated herself with it; it was so pleasant to her that she could not tell when she had had enough of it: she was satiated, but never satisfied.


144) I wondered with great admiration – wonder. John did not admire her. Elsewhere (Rev 13:3; 17:8), all the earthly-minded wonder in admiration of the beast. Here only is John’s wonder called forth: not the beast, but the woman sunken into the harlot, the Church become a world-loving apostate, moves his astonishment at so awful a change. That the world should be beastly is natural; but that the faithful bride should become the whore is monstrous, and excites the same amazement in him as Israel’s like transformation excited in Isaiah and Jeremiah. “Horrible thing” (Jer 2:20-21; 23:14) answers to “abominations” here. When the Church falls, she sinks lower than the godless world, in proportion as her right place is higher than the world. In Rev 17:3, “woman” has not the article, ‘the woman,’ as if before mentioned: for though identical in one sense with the woman (Rev 12), in another she is not. The elect never become apostates, but remain as the true woman invisibly in the harlot; yet Christendom, regarded as woman, has apostatized from its first faith.


145) The time when the beast “is not” is during ‘the deadly wound’ (Rev 13): the time of the seventh head’s Christianity, when its beastlike character was suspended temporarily. The healing of its wound answers to its ascending out of the bottomless pit. The anti-Christian world-power returns worse than ever, with Satanic powers from hell (Rev 11:7), not merely from the sea of convulsed nations (Rev 13:1). Christian civilization smites the beast but for a time: the deadly wound is always connected with its being healed up, the nonexistence of the beast with its reappearance.

Since the beast pretends to the position of God, the angel sarcastically describes him in language similar to that used to describe God, “the One who is, who was and who is coming”


146) The Greek word translated astonished here is a different form of the word that is used when John is astonished. The word here means they marveled at the beast.


147 Seven heads are seven mountains. The connection between mountains and kings must be deeper than the outward fact to which allusion is made, that Rome (the then world-city) is on seven hills ,The seven heads can hardly be at once seven kings or kingdoms (Rev 17:10), and seven geographical mountains. But, as the head is prominent in the body, so the mountain in the land. Like ‘sea,’ ‘earth,’ “waters … peoples” (Rev 17:15), so “mountains” have a symbolical meaning, namely, prominent seats of power. Especially such as oppose the cause of God (Ps 68:16-17; Isa 40:4; 41:15; 49:11; Ezek 35:2);


148) Is of the seven – ‘springs out of the seven.’ The eighth is not merely one of the seven restored, but a new power proceeding out of the seven. At the same time, there are not eight, but only seven heads, for the eighth is the embodiment of all the God-opposed features of the seven.


149) “The beast” not only has seven heads, but also ten horns, which represent ten kings. But these are very special kings: they enable “the beast” to rise to power and are even Willing to yield their authority to him. Recall that at the opening of the first seal (Rev 6:1-2), Antichrist began his “peaceful” conquest of the nations. He organized a “United States of Europe,” brought peace to the Middle East, and appeared to be the great leader the troubled world was seeking.


150)  Here is the ground or reason of the victory assigned; and this is taken, 1. From the character of the Lamb: He is King of kings and Lord of lords. He has, both by nature and by office, supreme dominion and power over all things; all the powers of earth and hell are subject to his check and control. 2. From the character of his followers: They are called, and chosen, and faithful. They are called out by commission to this warfare; they are chosen and fitted for it, and they will be faithful in it. Such an army, under such a commander, will at length carry all the world before them.


151)  By the vast multitude who paid obedience and subjection to the beast and to the whore. She sat upon (that is, presided over) many waters; and these waters were so many multitudes of people, and nations, of all languages; yea, she reigned not only over kingdoms, but over the kings, and they were her tributaries and vassals.


152) In the days when Johns prophecy will be fulfilled, an amazing thing will happen: “the harlot” will be made desolate by the very system that carried her! It is important to note that “the beast” carries “the harlot” Satan (and Antichrist) will use the apostate religious system to accomplish his own ends (i.e., attain world power); but then he will do away with “the harlot” and establish his own religious system. And all of this will be the fulfillment of God’s Word (Rev 17:17).

Since “the beast” sets up his image in the temple about the middle of the Tribulation, we can assume that “the harlot” and “the beast” work together during those first three-and-a half years. This is corroborated by the fact that the ten kings assist him in desolating “the harlot” (Rev 17:16). These are the same ten kings associated with “the beast” when he sets up the “United States of Europe” during the first half of the Tribulation.

Throughout history, political systems have “used” religious bodies to further their political causes. At the same time, church history reveals that religious groups have used politics to achieve their purposes. The marriage of church and state is not a happy one, and has often spawned children that have created serious problems. When dictators are friendly with religion, it is usually a sign that they want to make use of religion’s influence and then destroy it. The church of Jesus Christ has been most influential in the world when it has maintained a separated position.

Finally, note that those who trust the Lord are not influenced by “the harlot” or defeated by the kings (Rev 17:14). Once again, John points out that the true believers are the “overcomers. ”

Satan’s counterfeit religion is subtle, requiring spiritual discernment to recognize. It was Paul’s great concern that the local churches he founded not be seduced away from their sincere devotion to Christ (2 Cor 11:14). In every age, there is the tremendous pressure to conform to “popular religion” and to abandon the fundamentals of the faith. In these last days, we all need to heed the admonitions in 1 Tim 4 and 2 Tim 3 and remain true to our Lord.


153) The word here that some translations translate as adultery and some translate as fornication is from the Greek word porneia (porneia) which means to be unfaithful. So each of these translations could be correct. If you see Babylon as representing the church which is the bride of Christ adultery would be correct. If you see Babylon as the illegitimate church and therefore not the bride of Christ then fornication would be correct.


154) a better translation of this would be: she will be given back double what she has given to you, and double what she has done. She will be mixed a double portion in her own cup.

155) The very ways in which the church (Babylon has sinned is the way that God is going to punish her. She has gotten into bed with the leaders of the world and it is the leaders of the world which will turn on her and destroy her.


156) “Hallelujah” is frequent in the Psalms (cf. Ps 146-150), a strong command to praise the Lord  – it is the strongest possible command, probably originally uttered by the inspired Levite musicians summoning their hearers to worship); it was appropriate in all worship, especially in praising God for his magnificent acts. It functioned as a call to worship in the temple, and so functions in the heavenly courts of worship.


157) The marriage of the Lamb is come. The full, final consummation is at Rev 21:2-9, etc. Previously there must be the beast’s overthrow, etc., at the Lord’s coming, the binding of Satan, the millennial reign, the loosing of Satan, his last overthrow, and the general judgment. The elect Church, the heavenly Bride, soon after the destruction of the harlot, is transfigured at the Lord’s coming, and joins in His triumph over the beast. On the emblem of the heavenly Bridegroom and Bride, cf. Matt 22:2; 25:6,10; 2 Cor 11:2. Perfect union with Himself, and participation in His holiness, joy, glory, and kingdom, are included in this symbol (cf. Song). Besides the heavenly Bride, the transfigured, translated, and risen Church, reigning over the earth with Christ, there is also the earthly bride, Israel, in the flesh, never yet divorced, though for a time separated, from her Divine Husband, who shall then be re-united to the Lord, and be mother-church of the millennial earth, Christianized through her, (Isa 50:1; 54; 60:1-62:12; 65.) Scripture restricts the language of marriage-love to the Bride, the Church as a whole. Individuals, in relation to Christ, ought not to adopt it, as Rome does as to her nuns. Individually, believers are guests; collectively, they constitute the Bride. The harlot divides her affections among many; the Bride gives hers exclusively to Christ.


158)  Pure linen was mandatory apparel for the high priest entering the holy of holies (Lev 16:4), extended in time to all ministers in the sanctuary; angels were often supposed to be dressed in linen too (probably based on Dan 12:6-7). Its symbolic use for purity and (here) righteous deeds would thus be natural.

Righteousness – Each saint must have righteousness; not merely be justified, as if it belonged to the Church in the aggregate. The saints together have righteousness: Christ is accounted “the Lord our righteousness” to each on believing, the robe being made white in the blood of the Lamb. The righteousness of the saint is not inherent, but imputed. If it were otherwise, Christ would be merely enabling the sinner to justify himself. Rom 5:18-19, is decisive. The justification is now GIVEN the saints in manifestation-they openly walk with Christ in white. This, rather than their primary justification on earth, is the reference here. Their justification before the world, which persecuted them, contrasts with the judgment on the harlot. ‘Now that the harlot has fallen, the woman triumphs’ contrast with the Brides pure fine linen (indicating simplicity and purity), the harlot’s (Rev 17:4; 18:16) tawdry ornamentation. Babylon, the apostate church, is antithesis to new Jerusalem, the transfigured Church.


159)  Revelation seems to encourage the view that Christians on earth worship with the angels, in communion with the worship of heaven (a common Jewish view); but the book simultaneously rejects the views of those who prayed to and praised angels (amulets and incantations attest that some Jews invoked angels). Most of early Judaism associated the *Spirit of God with the spirit of *prophecy; for John, all witnesses of Jesus dependent on the Spirit (thus, ideally, all Christians) were prophets in the broadest sense of the term. It was, in fact, the proper witness to Jesus that distinguished true prophets from false ones (1 John 4:1-6).


160)  Behold a white horse: and he that sat upon him. Identical with Rev 6:2. He comes forth “conquering and to conquer.” Compare the ass-colt on which He rode into Jerusalem. The horse was used for war: here He is going forth to war with the beast. The donkey, for peace. His riding on it into Jerusalem is an earnest of His reign in Jerusalem over the earth, as Prince of peace, after all hostile powers have been overthrown. When the security of the world-power and the distress of the people of God have reached their highest, the Lord Jesus shall appear from heaven to end the whole world-course, and establish His kingdom of glory. He comes to judge with vengeance the world-power, and bring to the Church redemption, transfiguration, and power over the world.


161) Faithful and True—words applied to the Messiah also at 3:14. The two words mean virtually the same thing, since the Hebrew idea of truth was not correspondence to reality (as in Greek thought), but reliability. The “God of truth” is the God who can be trusted to keep his covenant. When John in his Gospel wrote that “grace and truth came through Jesus the Messiah” (Jn 1:17), he meant that in the life, death and resurrection of the Messiah, God’s faithfulness was revealed in fulfillment of his covenant. Likewise, the return of Jesus will be the faithful reappearance of him who has already appeared among men; this time he comes to bring God’s covenant promises to their final and full consummation.


162) Eyes were as a flame – all-searching, penetrating like fire; also, consuming indignation against sin, especially at His coming “in flaming fire, taking vengeance” on all the ungodly.


163) Many crowns – ‘diadems:’ not merely [stefanoi] garlands of victory, but crowns, as KING OF KINGS. Christ’s diadem comprises all diadems of the earth and of heavenly powers.  Also, the seven crowns (diadems) on the seven heads of the dragon (Rev 12:3), and ten diadems on the ten heads of the beast. These usurpers claim the diadems belonging to Christ.

164) That no man knew but he himself – (Judg 13:18; 1 Cor 2:9,11; 1 John 3:2.) The same is said of the “new name” of believers, Rev 2:17. In all respects the disciple is like his Lord. The Lord’s “new name” is to be theirs, “in their foreheads” (Rev 3:12; 14:1; 22:4); therefore His as yet unknown name also is written on His forehead: as the high priest had “Holiness to the Lord” inscribed on the mitre on his brow. John saw it as “written,” but knew not its meaning. A name which, in all its glorious significancy, can be only understood when the union of His saints with Him, and their joint triumph and reign, shall be perfectly manifested.


165) Soaked in blood. This could be the blood of the enemies’ armies (vv. 19, 21), Jesus’ own blood shed on the cross or the blood of martyred believers (6:9-10, 12:11). Most interpreters opt for the first.


166) in the gospel of John chapter one, John tells us about Jesus. John 1:1 tells us; “In the beginning was the Word and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.” Here John uses that same name, Word of God.


167) The armies … in heaven – (cf. Rev 14:20.) The glorified saints whom God “will bring with” Christ at His advent: both the living transfigured, and those raised and meeting the Lord in the air (1 Thess 4: cf. Rev 17:14); also “His mighty angels” (2 Thess 1:7).


168) Hebrews 4:12 For the word of God is living and active. Sharper than any double-edged sword, it penetrates even to dividing soul and spirit, joints and marrow; it judges the thoughts and attitudes of the heart. 13 Nothing in all creation is hidden from God’s sight. Everything is uncovered and laid bare before the eyes of him to whom we must give account. This is not just a punishment, but a divine judgement of the people of the earth.


169) [And he treads the wine-press of the fury of the wrath of God] This language is probably derived from Isa 63:1-4. It means here that his enemies would be certainly crushed before him-as grapes are crushed under the feet of him that treads in the winepress.


170) ‘His name written on His robe and thigh’ was partly on the robe, partly on the thigh itself, where, in an equestrian figure, the robe drops. The thigh was touched in taking an oath, as the seat of strength: it symbolizes Christ’s humanity, as, sprung from the loins of David, according to His covenant, and now the glorified “Son of man.” His incommunicable divine name, “which no man knew,” is on His head, Rev 19:12


171)  KING OF KINGS. Contrast Rev 17:14,17, the beast being in usurpation a king of kings, the ten kings delivering their kingdom to him.


172) [And I saw an angel standing in the sun] A different angel evidently from the one which had before appeared to him. The number of angels that appeared to John, as referred to in this book, was very great, and each one came on a new errand, or with a new message. Everyone must be struck with the image here. The description is as simple as it can be; and yet as sublime. The fewest words possible are used; and yet the image is distinct and clear. A heavenly being stands in the blaze of the brightest of the orbs that God permits us here to see-yet not consumed, and himself so bright that he can be distinctly seen amidst the dazzling splendors of that luminary. It is difficult to conceive of an image more sublime than this. Why he has his place in the sun is not stated, for there does not appear to be anything more intended by this than to give grandeur and impressiveness to the scene.


173) [Saying to all the fowls that fly in the midst of heaven] That is, to all the birds of prey-all that feed on flesh-such as hover over a battlefield.


174) [Come and gather yourselves together] All this imagery is taken from the idea that there would be a great slaughter, and that the bodies of the dead would be left unburied to the birds of prey.[Unto the supper of the great God] As if the great God were about to give you a feast-to wit, the carcasses of those slain. It is called “his supper” because he gives it; and the image is merely that there would be a great slaughter of his foes, as is specified in the following verse.


175) These both were cast alive into a lake – ‘the lake of fire,’ Gehenna. Satan is subsequently cast in, at the close of the outbreak, after the millennium (Rev 20:10). Then death and hell, with those not found at the general judgment “written in the book of life:” this constitutes “the second death.” “Alive” – a living death; not annihilation. ‘Their worm dieth not, their fire is not quenched’ (Mark 9:44,46,48).


176) Satan will be defeated (vv. 1-3). The “bottomless pit” spoken of in Rev 20:1 is not the same as hell; it is the “abyss” that we have met before in our studies (Rev 9:12,11; 11:7; 17:8). Satan is not cast into hell immediately, because God still has one more task for him to perform. Rather, Satan is confined in the bottomless pit for 1,000 years. First, Satan was cast out of heaven (Rev 12:9), and now he is cast out of earth!

Some Bible students feel that the “chaining” of Satan took place when Jesus died on the cross and arose from the dead to ascend to heaven. While it is true that Jesus won His decisive victory over Satan at the cross, the sentence against the devil has not yet been effected. He is a defeated foe, but he is still free to attack God’s people and oppose God’s work (1 Peter 5:8). I think it was Dr. James M. Gray who suggested that, if Satan is bound today, it must be with a terribly long chain! Paul was sure that Satan was loose (Eph 6:10 ff). and John agreed with him (Rev 2:13; 3:9).


177) [That old serpent] This is undoubtedly an allusion to the serpent that deceived Adam and Eve (Gen 3:1 ff.), and therefore a proof that it was Satan that, under the form of a serpent, deceived them.


178) [The devil] This word originally means an adversary, or an accuser; then, any one opposed to us; then, an enemy of any kind. It is given in the Scriptures, by way of eminence, to the leader of evil angels-a being characterized as full of subtlety, envy, art, and hatred of mankind. He is known, also, by the name Satan, Job 1:6-12; Matt 12:26;

Devil is the Greek word for advisory and Satan is the Hebrew word. John gives them both here so there is no confusion as to who this is.


179) [A thousand years] This is the period usually designated as the MILLENNIUM-for the word “millennium” means “a thousand years.” It is on this passage that the whole doctrine of the millennium as such has been founded. It is true that there are elsewhere in the Scriptures abundant promises that the gospel will ultimately spread over the world; but the notion of a millennium as such is found in this passage alone. It is, however, enough to establish the doctrine, if its meaning be correctly ascertained; for it is a just rule in interpreting the Bible, that the clearly-ascertained sense of a single passage of Scripture is sufficient to establish the truth of a doctrine. The fact, however, that this passage stands alone in this respect, makes it the more important to endeavor accurately to determine its meaning. There are but three ways in which the phrase “a thousand years” can be understood here: either:

(a) literally; or

(b) in the prophetic use of the term, where a day would stand for a year, thus making a period of three hundred and sixty thousand years; or

(c) figuratively, supposing that it refers to a long but indefinite period of time. It may be impossible to determine which of these periods is intended, though the first has been generally supposed to be the true one, and hence the common notion of the millennium. There is nothing, however, in the use of the language here, as there would be nothing contrary to the common use of symbols in this book in regard to time, in the supposition that this was designed to describe the longest period here suggested, or that it is meant that the world shall enjoy a reign of peace and righteousness during the long period of three hundred and sixty thousand years. Indeed, there are somethings in the arrangements of nature which look as if it were contemplated that the earth would continue under a reign of righteousness through a vastly long period in the future.



180) Is this a literal kingdom on earth, or should these verses be “spiritualized” and applied to the church today? Some interpreters say that the term “a thousand years” is simply a number meaning “ultimate perfection” (10 x 10 x 10 = 1,000). They assert that it is a symbol of Christ’s victory and the church’s wonderful blessings now that Satan has been defeated and bound. This view is known as amillenniatism, which means “no millennium” – that is, no literal kingdom.

The problem with this view is that it does not explain why John introduced the period with a resurrection of the dead. He was certainly not writing about a “spiritual” resurrection, because he even told how these people died! And in Rev 20:5, John wrote of another literal resurrection. If we are now in the 1,000-year kingdom of victory, when did this resurrection take place? It seems reasonable to assume that John wrote about a literal physical resurrection of the dead, and a literal kingdom on earth

What is the purpose of the millennial kingdom? For one thing, it will be the fulfillment of God’s promises to Israel and to Christ (Ps 2; Luke 1:30-33). Our Lord reaffirmed them to His own Apostles (Luke 22:29-30). This kingdom will be a worldwide display of Christ’s glory, when all nature will be set free from the bondage of sin (Rom 8:19-22). It will be the answer to the prayers of the saints, “My kingdom come!” It will also be God’s final demonstration of the sinfulness of sin and the wickedness of the human heart apart from God’s grace, but more on this later.

The Tribulation martyrs will be raised from the dead and given glorious thrones and rewards. The church will share in this reign, as symbolized by the twenty-four elders (Rev 5:10, see also 2:26-28; 3:12,21; 1 Thess 4:13-18; 2 Tim 2:12). Some Bible students believe that the Old Testament saints will also be a part of this “first resurrection”


181) At the close of the Millennium, Satan will be released from the pit and permitted to lead one last revolt against the Lord. Why? As final proof that the heart of man is desperately wicked and can be changed only by God’s grace. Imagine the tragedy of this revolt: people who have been living in a perfect environment, under the perfect government of God’s Son, will finally admit the truth and rebel against the King! Their obedience will be seen as mere feigned submission, and not true faith in Christ at all.

The naming of “Gog and Magog” (Rev 20:8) does not equate this battle with the one described in Ezek 38-39; for that army invades from the north, while this one comes from the four comers of the earth. These two events are related, however, inasmuch as in both battles, Israel is the focal point. In this case, Jerusalem will be the target (“beloved city,” Ps 78:68; 87:2). God will deal with this revolt very quickly and efficiently, and Satan will be cast into bell. Note that “the beast” and false prophet will still be suffering in the lake of fire after 1,000 years! (see Matt 25:41)

In one sense, the millennial kingdom will sum up” all that God has said about the heart of man during the various periods of history. It will be a reign of law, and yet law will not change man’s sinful heart. Man will still revolt against God. The Millennium will be a period of peace and perfect environment, a time when disobedience will be judged swiftly and with justice; and yet in the end the subjects of the King will follow Satan and rebel against the Lord. A perfect environment cannot produce a perfect heart.


182) The camp of the saints … and the beloved city – the camp of the saints encircling the beloved city, Jerusalem (Ecclus 24:11). Contrast “hateful” in Babylon, (Rev 18:2; ‘Jacob, the beloved,’ Deut 32:15; Septuagint) Ezekiel’s prophecy of Gog and Magog refers to the attack on Israel before the millennium; but this attack is after the millennium; so that “Gog and Magog” represent the final adversaries led by Satan.




183)  After Satan’s followers will be destroyed, he will be thrown into the lake of burning sulfur. Being cast into the lake that was prepared for him and his angels is the final judgment on Satan (cf. Matt 25:41). Most significant as a support of the doctrine of eternal punishment is the concluding statement, they will be tormented day and night forever and ever. The word “they” includes the devil, the beast, and the false prophet. The lake of burning sulfur is not annihilation, for the beast and false prophet are still there a thousand years after they experienced their final judgment


184) The word translated Heaven here would be better translated sky. It is talking about the heavens that are above the earth, not the dwelling place of god and the angels.

Earth and heaven fled from his presence and no place was found for them, because they are corrupted by sin, unholy and impure (Ro 8:19-22). Although in the present age the impure defiles the pure, when God himself appears in glory his purity banishes the impure, for his holiness cannot abide that which is corrupted by sin. The only remedy is “a new heaven and a new earth, for the old heaven and the old earth had passed away”


185) Jesus Christ will judge these unsaved people on the basis of what is written “in the books.” What books? For one ding, God’s Word will be there. The Word that I have spoken, the same shall judge him in the last day” (John 12:48). Every sinner will be held accountable for the truth he or she has heard h this life.

There will also be a book containing the works of the sinners being judged, though this does not suggest that a person can do good works sufficient to enter heaven (Eph 2:8-9; Titus 3:5). Why, then, will Jesus Christ consider the works, good and bad, of the people before the White Throne? To determine the degree of punishment they will endure in bell. All of these people will be cast into hell. Their personal rejection of Jesus Christ has already determined their destiny. But Jesus Christ is a righteous Judge, and He will assign each sinner the place that he deserves.

There are degrees of punishment in hell (Matt 11:20-24). Each lost sinner will receive just what is due him, and none will be able to argue with the Lord or question His decision.

God knows what sinners are doing, and His books will reveal the truth.

“The Book of Life” will be there, containing the names of God’s redeemed people (Phil 4:3; Rev 21:27; note also 13:8; 17:8). No unsaved person will have his or her name in the Lamb’s Book of Life; only true believers are recorded there (Luke 10:20).


186) There appears to be two different books that are spoken of here. The first are books which contain all the details of a person’s life. All the things which have been done both good and bad. These books are spoken of a number of times in the Old Testament, and the Apocrypha (Daniel 7:10,Enoch 90:20, 2 Baruch 24:1, 4 Ezra 6:20). There are some who believe that there are levels of hell and the more evil a person has done the lower the level in hell that person is put. The problem with this thinking is that it does not seem to be supported by the Bible and especially by this passage where in verse 15 it states that anyone whose name does not appear in the Book of Life is thrown into the Lake of fire.

The second book that is opened is called by John the Book of Life. This book is also referred to in both the Old and New Testaments (Exodus 32:32, Psalms 69:28, Isaiah 4:3, Philippians 4:3, and Revelation 3:5,13:8).This is a book of all those who have given the lives over to the control and service of Jesus Christ. John tells us in Revelation 3:5 that those who overcome, that is do not deny Jesus. Will not have their name blotted out of the Book of Life. This does seem to point to the fact that a name can be blotted out of the book of Life for the denial of Jesus.


187) God has promised His people a new heaven and earth (Isa 65:17; 66:22). The old creation must make way for the new creation if God is to be glorified. Jesus called this event “the regeneration” of the earth (Matt 19:28), and Peter explained it as a cleansing and renewing by fire (2 Peter 3:10-13). Bible students are not agreed as to whether the old elements will be renewed or whether the old will be destroyed and a whole new creation ushered in. The fact that the Greek word translated new means “new in character” (Rev 21:1,5) may lend credence to the former explanation.

“No more sea” does not mean “no more water.” It simply indicates that the new earth will have a different arrangement as far as water is concerned. Three fourths of our globe consists of water, but this won’t be the case in the eternal state. In John’s day, the sea meant danger, storms, and separation (John himself was on an island at the time!); so perhaps John was giving us more than a geography lesson.


188)       the announcement of the New Jerusalem is coming down out of heaven to unite the new heaven and the new earth. The New Jerusalem refers to the capitol of the new creation. The concept of the New Jerusalem derives from the Old Testament expectation of the restoration of Jerusalem and the return of God to His temple and His acknowledgement by all nations (Isaiah 2:1-5; 49:14-18; 52; 54;60-62; 65:17-25; Jeremiah 31:38-40; Micah4:1-4; Zechariah 14).


189) Alpha (A) and Omega (W) are the first and the last letters in the Greek alphabet. By using these two letters to describe himself he is saying that everything that can be said or written is completed in him.


190) The city’s description follows the pattern of cities with which John’s readers were familiar: foundations, walls, and gates. The foundations speak of permanence, in contrast to the tents in which “pilgrims and strangers” lived (Heb 11:8-10). The walls and gates speak of Protection. God’s people will never have to fear any enemies. Angels at the gates will act as sentries!

In this city, saints of the Old Covenant and the New Covenant will be united. The twelve gates are identified with the twelve tribes of Israel, and the twelve foundations with the 12 Apostles (see Eph 2:20). John is assuring us that all of God’s believing people will be included in the city (Heb 11:39-40).


191) John had measured the earthly Jerusalem (Rev 11), but now he is invited to measure the heavenly city. Foursquare means “equal on all sides,” so the city might be a cube or a pyramid. More importantly, the fact that it is equal on all sides indicates the perfection of God’s eternal city: nothing is out of order or balance.

The measurements are staggering! If we take a cubit as eighteen inches, then the city walls are 216 feet high! If a furlong is taken as 600 feet (measures differed in ancient days), the city would be about 1,500 miles square! There will be plenty of room for everyone!


192) Building foundations are usually underground, but these foundations will not only be visible but beautifully garnished with precious stones. Each separate foundation will have its own jewel, and the blending of the colors will be magnificent as God’s light shines through.

No one can be dogmatic about the colors of these gems, and it really does not matter. Jasper, as we have seen, is a clear crystal. Sapphire is a blue stone, and chalcedony is probably greenish-blue. The emerald, of course, is green; and the sardonyx is like our onyx, a white stone streaked with brown, though some scholars describe it as red and white. Sardius is a red stone (sometimes described as “blood red”), and chrysolite a yellow quartz Like our modern topaz. Beryl is green and topaz a yellow-green. We are not sure about the chrysoprasus; some think it is a golden-tinted stone, others, an apple-green color. The jacinth is probably blue, though some claim it was yellow, and the amethyst is a rich purple, or blue-red.


193) The Tree of Life was in the Garden of Eden (Genesis 2:9), but after sinning, Adam and Eve had to be kept from it (Genesis 3:22) and the way to it guarded by an angel (Genesis 3:24). Here in restored Eden, the tree of life too is restored. Like the other phenomena of the new creation (see 21:14-21) it is unlike anything we now know, producing twelve kinds of fruit, a different kind every month. Moreover, the leaves of the tree are for healing the nations—no longer will there be any curses. Here “healing” seems to mean “making whole.” The “curses” are evils that come upon nations—both Israel and the Gentile nations—due to their continued and unrepented sins; most of the biblical prophets pronounced curses at one time or another.


194) The removal of the curse is from Zech 14:11, and in this context it refers to the reversal of the curse in Eden (Gen 3:16-19. This is the doing away with death.


195)  There is found in the Old testament a fear seeing the face of God. This come from Exodus 33:20. In the New Jerusalem God will now be fully disclosed to his people. The people of God will experience being in the presence of God fully


196 The entire Book of Revelation was delivered by Christ through His angel and is for the churches. Christ described Himself as the Root and the Offspring of David, and the bright Morning Star. Historically Christ comes from David (Matt 1:1; cf. Isa 11:11; Rev 5:5). Prophetically His coming is like the morning star, the beginning of a bright new day. The Holy Spirit joined with the bride, the church, in extending an invitation to all who heed. Those who hear are encouraged to respond and also to extend the invitation to others. The wonderful promise is given that all those who are thirsty may come and will receive God’s free gift.


This is the wonderful invitation extended to every generation up to the coming of Christ. Those who recognize their need and realize that Christ is the provider of salvation are exhorted to come while there is yet time before the judgment falls and it is too late. As the Scriptures make clear, the gift of eternal life (here called the water of life; cf. 22:1; John 7:37-39) is free. It has been paid for by the death of Christ on the cross and is extended to all who are willing to receive it in simple faith.



Matthew Bible Study Notes

Notes on Matthew

1) 2) Among the ancestors of Christ who had brothers, Many of whom Jesus descended from where younger brothers; such Abraham himself was, and Jacob, and Judah, and David, and Nathan, and Rhesa; this goes to show that the pre-eminence of Christ did not come from the line of earthly princes. Normally earthly princes would descend through the oldest son.


2) The wife successively of Er and Onan, the two sons of Judah (Gen 38:6-30). Her importance in the sacred narrative depends on the great anxiety to keep up the lineage of Judah. It seemed as if the family were on the point of extinction. Er and Onan (q.v. respectively) had each in turn perished suddenly. Judah’s wife, Bathshuah, died; and there only remained a child, Shelah, whom Judah was unwilling to trust to the dangerous union, as it appeared, with Tamar, lest he should meet with the same fate as his brothers. That he should, however, marry her seems to have been regarded as part of the fixed law of the tribe, whence its incorporation into the Mosaic law in after-times (Deut. 25:5; Matt 22:24); and, as such, Tamar was determined not to let the opportunity escape through Judah’s parental anxiety. Accordingly, she resorted to the desperate expedient of entrapping the father himself into the union which he feared for his son. He, on the first emergence from his mourning for his wife, went to one of the festivals often mentioned in Jewish history as attendant on sheep-shearing. He wore on his finger the ring of his chieftainship; he carried his staff in his hand; he wore a collar or necklace round his neck. He was encountered by a veiled woman on the road leading to Timnath, the future birthplace of Samson, among the hills of Dan. He took her for one of the unfortunate women who were consecrated to the impure rites of the Canaanitish worship.  He promised her, as the price of his intercourse, a kid from the flocks to which he was going, and left as his pledge his ornaments and his staff. The kid he sent back by his shepherd, Hirah of Adullam. The woman could nowhere be found. Months afterwards it was discovered to be his own daughter-in-law, Tamar, who had thus concealed herself under the veil or mantle, which she cast off on her return home, where she resumed the seclusion and dress of a widow. She was sentenced to be burned alive, and was only saved by the discovery, through the pledges which Judah had left, that her seducer was no less than the chieftain of the tribe. He had the magnanimity to recognize that she had been driven into this crime by his own neglect of his promise to give her in marriage to his youngest son. “She hath been more righteous than I… and he knew her again no more” (Gen 38:26). The fruit of this intercourse was twins, Pharez and Zarah, and through Pharez the sacred line was continued.  B.C. 1885. Hence the prominence given to Tamar in the nuptial benediction of the tribe of Judah (Ruth 4:12) and in the genealogy of our Lord (Matt 1:3). (from McClintock and Strong Encyclopedia, Electronic Database. Copyright © 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)


3)  At the time of the arrival of the Israelites in Canaan Rahab was a young unmarried woman, dwelling in a house of her own alone, though she had a father and mother, and brothers and sisters, living in Jericho. She was a “harlot,” and probably combined the trade of lodging-keeper for wayfaring men. She seems also to have been engaged in the manufacture of linen, and the art of dyeing, for which the Phoenicians were early famous; since we find the flat roof of her house covered with stalks of flax put there to dry, and a stock of scarlet or crimson thread in her house. Her house was situated on the wall, probably near the town gate, so as to be convenient for persons coming in and going out of the city. Traders coming from Mesopotamia or Egypt to Phcenicia would frequently pass through Jericho, situated as it was near the fords of the Jordan; and of these many would resort to the house of Rahab. Rahab, therefore, had been well informed with regard to the events of the Exodus. When, therefore, the two spies sent by Joshua came to her house, they found themselves under the roof of one who, alone, probably, of the whole population, was friendly to their nation. Their coming, however, was quickly known; and the king of Jericho, having received information of it — while at supper, according to Josephussent, that very evening, to require her to deliver them up. It is very likely that, her house being a public one, someone who resorted there may have seen and recognized the spies, and gone off at once to report the matter to the authorities. But not without awakening Rahab’s suspicions; for she immediately hid the men among the flax-stalks which were piled on the flat roof of her house, and, on the arrival of the officers sent to search her house, was ready with the story that two men — of what country she knew not — had, it was true, been to her house, but had left it just before the gates were shut for the night. If they pursued them at once, she added, they would be sure to overtake them. Misled by the false information, the men started in pursuit to the fords of the Jordan, the gates having been opened to let them out, and immediately closed again. When all was quiet, and the people were gone to bed, Rahab stole up to the house-top, told the spies what had happened, and assured them of her faith in the God of Israel, and her confident expectation of the capture of the whole land by them — an expectation, she added, which was shared by her countrymen, and had produced a great panic among them. She then told them her plan for their escape: it was to let them down by a cord from the window of her house, which looked over the city wall, and that they should flee into the mountains which bounded the plains of Jericho, and lie hidden there for three days, by which time the pursuers would have returned, and the fords of the Jordan be open to them again. She asked, in return for her kindness to them, that they should swear by Jehovah that. when their countrymen had taken the city, they would spare her life, and the lives of her father and mother, brothers and sisters, and all that belonged to them. The men readily consented; and it was agreed between them that she should hang out her scarlet line at the window from which they had escaped, and bring all her family under her roof. If any of her kindred went out-of-doors into the street, his blood would be upon his own head; and the Israelites, in that case, would be guiltless. The event proved the wisdom of her precautions. The pursuers returned to Jericho after a fruitless search, and the spies got safe back to the Israelitish camp. The news they brought of the terror of the Canaanites doubtless inspired Israel with fresh courage, and within three days of their return the passage of the Jordan was effected. In the utter destruction of Jericho which ensued, Joshua gave the strictest orders for the preservation of Rahab and her family; and, accordingly, before the city was burned, the two spies were sent to her house, and they brought out her, her father, and mother, and brothers, and kindred, and all that she had, and placed them in safety in the Israelite camp. The narrator adds, “and she dwelleth in Israel unto this day;” not necessarily implying that she was alive at the time he wrote, but that the family of strangers of which she was reckoned the head continued to dwell among the children of Israel. (from McClintock and Strong Encyclopedia, Electronic Database. Copyright © 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)


4) Ruth, a Moabitess, the wife, first, of Mahlon, secondly of Boaz, and by him mother of Obed, the ancestress of David and of Christ, and one of the four women (Tamar, Rahab, and Uriah’s wife being the other three) who are named by Matthew in the genealogy of Christ. She thus came into intimate relation with the stock of Israel, and her history is given in one of the books of the sacred canon which bears her name It is the domestic history of a family compelled, by the urgency of a famine, to abandon the land of Canaan, and seek an asylum in the territories of Moab. Elimelech, the head of the emigrating household, dies in the land of his sojourn, where his two surviving sons “took them wives of the women of Moab; the name of the one was Orpah, and the name of the other Ruth.” On the death of the sons, the widowed parent resolving to return to her country and kindred, the filial affection of the daughters-in-law is put to a severe test, and Ruth determines at all hazards to accompany Naomi. “Whither thou goest, I will go, and where thou lodgest, I will lodge; thy people shall be my people, and thy God my God: where thou diest, I will die, and there will I be buried: the Lord do so to me, and more also, if aught but death part thee and me,” was the expression of the unalterable attachment of the young Moabite widow to the mother, to the land, and to the religion of her lost husband. They arrived at Bethlehem just at the beginning of barley harvest, and Ruth, going out to glean for the support of her mother-in-law and herself, chanced to go into the field of Boaz, a wealthy man, the near kinsman of her father-in-law, Elimelech. The story of her virtues and her kindness and fidelity to her mother-in-law, and her preference for the land of her husband’s birth, had gone before her; and immediately upon learning who the strange young woman was, Boaz treated her with the utmost kindness and respect, and sent her home laden with corn which she had gleaned. Boaz had bidden her return from day to day, and directed his servants to give her a courteous welcome. An omen so propitious could not but be regarded as a special encouragement to both, and Naomi therefore counselled Ruth to seek an opportunity for intimating to Boaz the claim she had upon him as the nearest kinsman of her deceased husband. Boaz entertained the proposal favorably, yet he replied that there was another person more nearly related to the family than himself, whose title must first be disposed of. Without delay he applied himself to ascertain whether the kinsman in question was inclined to assert his right — a right which extended to a purchase of the ransom (at the Jubilee) of Elimelech’s estate. Finding him indisposed to the measure, he obtained from him a release, ratified according to the legal forms of the time, and next proceeded himself to redeem the patrimony of Elimelech, and finally, with all due solemnity, took Ruth to be his wife, amid the blessings and congratulations of their neighbors. Ruth has always held a foremost place among the Scripture characters. (from McClintock and Strong Encyclopedia, Electronic Database. Copyright © 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)


5) BATH-SHEBA daughter of Eliam (2 Sam 11:3) or Ammiel (1 Chron 3:5), the grand daughter of Ahithophel (2 Sam 23:34), and wife of Uriah. She was seduced by King David during the absence of her husband, who was then engaged at the siege of Rabbah (2 Sam 11:4,5; Ps 51:2).  B.C. 1035. The child thus born in adultery became ill and died (2 Sam 12:15-18). After the lapse of the period of mourning for her husband, who was slain by the contrivance of David (2 Sam 11:15), she was legally married to the king (2 Sam 11:27), and bore him Solomon (2 Sam 12:24; 1 Kings 1:11; 2:13; comp. Matt 1:6). It is probable that the enmity of Ahithophel toward David was increased, if not caused, by the dishonor brought by him upon his family in the person of Bath-sheba. The other children of Bath-sheba were Shimea (or Shammu’ah), Shobab, and Nathan, named in 2 Sam 5:14; 1 Chron 3:5. When, in David’s old age, Adonijah, an elder son by Haggith, attempted to set aside in his own favor the succession promised to Solomon, Bath-sheba was employed by Nathan to inform the king of the conspiracy (1 Kings 1:11,15,23). After the accession of Solomon, she, as queen-mother, requested permission of her son for Adonijah (q.v.) to take in marriage Abishag (q.v.) the Shunamite.  B.C. 1015. This permission was refused, and became the occasion of the execution of Adonijah (1 Kings 2:24,25). (from McClintock and Strong Encyclopedia, Electronic Database. Copyright © 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)


6) Rehoboam means enlarger of the people, the only son of Solomon, by the Ammonitish princess Naamah (1 Kings 14:21,31), and his successor (1 Kings 11:43).  Rehoboam was born  B.C. 1014, when Solomon was but twenty years old, and not yet anointed to the throne. His reign was noted for the splitting of the kinfdom continued to the end of both lines of monarchy. Rehoboam selected Shechem as the place of his coronation, probably as an act of concession to the Ephraimites, and perhaps in deference to the suggestions of those old and wise counsellors of his father whose advice he afterwards unhappily rejected. The people demanded a remission of the severe burdens imposed by Solomon, and Rehoboam promised them an answer in three days, during which time he consulted first his father’s counsellors, and then the young men “that were grown up with him and which stood before him,” whose answer shows how greatly during Solomon’s later years the character of the Jewish court had degenerated. Rejecting the advice of the elders to conciliate the people at the beginning of his reign, and so make them “his servants forever,” he returned as his reply, in the true spirit of an Eastern despot, the frantic bravado of his contemporaries, “My little finger shall be thicker than my father’s loins. . . I will add to your yoke; my father hath chastised you with whips, but I will chastise you with scorpions”

Rehoboam assembled an army of 180,000 men from the two faithful tribes of Judah and Benjamin in the hope of reconquering Israel. The expedition, however, was forbidden by the prophet Shemaiah, who assured them that the separation of the kingdoms was in accordance with God’s will (1 Kings 12:24). Still, during Rehoboam’s lifetime peaceful relations between Israel and Judah were never restored (2 Chron 12:15; 1 Kings 14:30). The pure worship of God was maintained in Judah, and the Levites and many pious Israelites from the North, vexed at the calf-idolatry introduced by Jeroboam at Dan and Bethel, in imitation of the Egyptian worship of Mnevis, came and settled in the southern kingdom and added to its power. But Rehoboam did not check the introduction of heathen abominations into his capital. The lascivious worship of Ashtoreth was allowed to exist by the side of the true religion (an inheritance of evil doubtless left by Solomon), “images” (of Baal and his fellow-divinities) were set up, and the worst immoralities were tolerated (1 Kings 14:22-24). He died  B.C. 956, after a reign of seventeen years, having ascended the throne at the age of forty-one (1 Kings 14:21: 2 Chron 12:13). (from McClintock and Strong Encyclopedia, Electronic Database. Copyright © 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)


7) ABIJAH – The second king of the separate kingdom of Judah, being the son of Rehoboam, and grandson of Solomon (1 Chron 3:10). He began to reign  B.C. 956, in the eighteenth year of Jeroboam, king of Israel, and he reigned three years (2 Chron 12:16; 13:1,2). At the commencement of his reign, looking on the well-founded separation of the ten tribes from the house of David as rebellion, Abijah made a vigorous attempt to bring them back to their allegiance (2 Chron 13:3-19). In this he failed. In the book of  Kings we are told that “he walked in all the sins of his father” (1 Kings 15:3). He had fourteen wives, by whom he left twenty-two sons and sixteen daughters (2 Chron 13:20-22). Asa succeeded him (2 Chron 14:1; Matt 1:7). (from McClintock and Strong Encyclopedia, Electronic Database. Copyright © 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)


8) ASA – The son of Abijah, grandson of Rehoboam, and third king of the separate kingdom of Judah (1 Kings 15:2 Chron 14-16; Matt 1:7,8). He began to reign two years before the death of Jeroboam, in Israel, and he reigned forty-one years ( B.C. 953-912). As Asa was very young at his accession, the affairs of the government were administered by his mother, or, according to some (comp. 1 Kings 15:1,10), his grandmother Maachah, who is understood to have been a granddaughter of Absalom.  But the young king, on assuming the reins of government; was conspicuous for his earnestness in supporting the worship of God, and rooting out idolatry with its attendant immoralities, and for the vigor and wisdom with which he provided for the prosperity of his kingdom. In his zeal against heathenism he did not spare his grandmother Maachah. She had set up some impure worship in a grove but Asa burnt the symbol of her religion, and threw its ashes into the brook Kidron, as Moses had done to the golden calf (Ex 32:20), and then deposed Maachah from her dignity.

Toward the latter end of his reign (the numbers in 2 Chron 15:19, and 16:1, ) the king failed to maintain the character he had thus acquired. At his death, however, it appeared that his popularity had not been substantially impaired, for he was honored with a funeral of unusual cost and magnificence (2 Chron 16:11-14; with which 1 Kings 15:24, does not conflict). He was succeeded by his son Jehoshaphat. (from McClintock and Strong Encyclopedia, Electronic Database. Copyright © 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)


9) JEHOSHAPHAT –  The fourth separate king of Judah, being son of Asa (by Azubah, the daughter of Shilhi), whom he succeeded at the age of thirty-five and reigned twenty-five years, B.C. 912-887 (1 Kings 22:41,42; 2 Chron 20:31). He commenced his reign by fortifying his kingdom against Israel (2 Chron 17:1,2); and, having thus secured himself against surprise from the quarter which gave most disturbance to him, he proceeded to cleanse the land from the idolatries and idolatrous monuments by which it was still tainted (1 Kings 22:43). Even the high places and groves which former well-disposed kings had suffered to remain were by the zeal of Jehoshaphat in a great measure destroyed (2 Chron 17:6), although not altogether (2 Chron 20:33). In the third year of his reign, chiefs, with priests and Levites, proceeded from town to town, with the book of the Law in their hands, instructing the people, and calling back their wandering affections to the religion of their fathers (2 Chron 17:7-9). The results of this fidelity to the principles of the theocracy were, that at home he enjoyed peace and abundance and abroad security and honor. His treasuries were filled with the “presents” which the blessing of God upon the people, “in their basket and their store,” enabled them to bring. His renown extended into the neighboring nations, and the Philistines, as well as the adjoining Arabian tribes, paid him rich tributes in silver and in cattle. He was thus enabled to put all his towns in good condition, to erect fortresses, to organize a powerful army, and to raise his kingdom to a degree of importance and splendor which it had not enjoyed since the revolt of the ten tribes (2 Chron 17:10-19). (from McClintock and Strong Encyclopedia, Electronic Database. Copyright © 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)


10) JEHORAM – The eldest son and successor of Jehoshaphat, and fifth king on the separate throne of Judah, who began to reign (alone) at the age of thirty-six years, and reigned three years, B.C. 887-884. It is indeed said in the general account (2 Chron 21:5,20; 2 Kings 8:16) that he began to reign at the age of thirty-two and that he reigned eight years; but the conclusions deducible from the fact that his reign began in the fifth year of Jehoram, king of Israel (2 Kings 8:16), show that the reign thus stated dates back three years into the reign of his father, who from this is seen to have associated his eldest son with him in the later years of his reign, as, indeed, is expressly stated in this last cited passage.



Jehoram was unhappily been married to Athaliah, the daughter of Ahab and Jezebel, and her influence seems to have neutralized all the good he might have derived from the example of his father. One of the first acts of his reign was to put his six brothers to death and seize the valuable appanages which their father had in his lifetime bestowed upon them. After this we are not surprised to find him giving way to the gross idolatries of that new and strange kind the Phoenician which had been brought into Israel by Jezebel and into Judah by her daughter Athaliah. For these atrocities the Lord let forth his anger against Jehoram and his kingdom. At length the Philistines on one side, and the Arabians and Cushites on the other, grew bold against a king forsaken of God, and in repeated invasions spoiled the land of all its substance; they even ravaged the royal palaces, and took away the wives and children of the king, leaving him only one son, Ahaziah. Nor was this all: Jehoram was in his last days afflicted with a frightful disease in his bowels, which, from the terms employed in describing it, appears to have been malignant dysentery in its most shocking and tormenting form. After a disgraceful reign and a most painful death, public opinion inflicted the posthumous dishonor of refusing him a place in the sepulchre of the kings. Jehoram was by far the most impious and cruel tyrant that had as yet occupied the throne of Judah, though he was rivalled or surpassed by some of his successors (2 Kings 8:16-24; 2 Chron 21:1). (from McClintock and Strong Encyclopedia, Electronic Database. Copyright © 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)


11) There are a  number of Kings who have been left out here, Ahaziah, Athaliah, Joash, and Amaziah

UZZIAH – The tenth king of the separate kingdom of Judah, B.C. 808-756. After the murder of Amaziah, his son Uzziah was chosen by the people to occupy the vacant throne, at the age of sixteen; and for the greater part of his reign of fifty-two years he lived in the fear of God, and showed himself a wise, active, and pious ruler. He began his reign by a successful expedition against his father’s enemies, the Edomites, who had revolted from Judah in Jehoram’s time, eighty years before. He strengthened the walls of Jerusalem at their weakest-point’s, furnished them with formidable engines of war, and equipped an army of 307, 500 men with the best inventions of military art. He was also a great patron of agriculture, dug wells, built towers in, the wilderness for the protection of the flocks, and cultivated rich vineyards and arable land on his own account. He never deserted the worship of the true God, and was much influenced by Zechariah, a prophet who is only mentioned in connection with him (2 Chron 26:5); for, as he probably died before Uzziah. The end of Uzziah was less prosperous than his beginning. Elated with his splendid career, he determined to burn incense on the altar of God, but was opposed by the high-priest Azariah and eighty others. (See Ex 30:7,8; Num 16:40; 18:7.) The king was enraged at their resistance, and, as he pressed forward with his censer, was suddenly smitten with leprosy. In 2 Kings 15:5 we are merely told that “the Lord smote the king, so that he was a leper unto the day of his death, and dwelt in several house; but his invasion of the priestly office is not specified. This catastrophe compelled Uzziah to reside outside the city, so that the kingdom was administered till his death by his son, Jotham as regent.  (from McClintock and Strong Encyclopedia, Electronic Database. Copyright © 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)


12) JOTHAM –  The eleventh king of the separate kingdom of Judah, and son of Uzziah (by Jerusha, daughter of Zadok), whom he succeeded B.C. 756; he reigned sixteen years. His father having during his last years been excluded by leprosy from public life, the government was administered by his son, at that time twenty-five years of age (2 Chron 26:21,23: 27:1; 2 Kings 15:33).  Jotham profited by the experience which the reign of his father, and of the kings who preceded him, afforded, and he ruled in the fear of God, although he was unable to correct all the corrupt practices into which the people had fallen. His sincere intentions were rewarded with a prosperous reign. He was successful in his wars. The Ammonites, who had “given gifts” as a sort of tribute to Uzziah, but had ceased to do so after his leprosy had incapacitated him from governing, were constrained by Jotham, but not till several years after he had become settled as sole monarch, to pay, for the three remaining years of his reign, a heavy tribute in silver, wheat, and barley (2 Chron 26:8; 27:5,6). Many important public works were also undertaken and accomplished by Jotham. The principal gate of the Temple was rebuilt by him on a more magnificent scale; the quarter of Ophel, in Jerusalem, was strengthened by new fortifications; various towns were built or rebuilt in the mountains of Judah; and castles and towers of defense were erected in the wilderness. Jotham died greatly lamented by his people, and was buried in the sepulchre of the kings (2 Kings 15:38; 2 Chron 17:3,9).  B.C. 740. His reign was favored with the ministrations of the prophets Isaiah, Hosea, and Micah (Isa 1:1; 7:1; Hos 1:1; Mic 1:1). (from McClintock and Strong Encyclopedia, Electronic Database. Copyright © 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)


13) AHAZ – The son and successor of Jotham, being the twelfth king of the separate kingdom of Judah, who reigned fourteen years,  B.C. 740-726 (besides two years as viceroy under his father). In 2 Kings 16:2, he is said to have ascended the throne at the age of 20 years. At the time of his accession, Rezin, king of Damascus, and Pekah, king of Israel, had recently formed a league against Judah, and they proceeded to lay siege to Jerusalem, intending to place on the throne Ben-Tabeal, who was not a prince of the royal family of Judah, but probably a Syrian noble. Upon this the prophet Isaiah, full of zeal for God and patriotic loyalty to the house of David, hastened to give advice and encouragement to Ahaz , and it was probably owing to the spirit of energy and religious devotion which he poured into his counsels that the allies failed in their attack on Jerusalem. the Edomites , attacked and wasted the east part of Judah, while the Philistines invaded the west and south. The weak-minded and helpless Ahaz sought deliverance from these numerous troubles by appealing to Tiglath-pileser, king of Assyria, who freed him from his most formidable enemies by invading Syria, taking Damascus, killing Rezin, and depriving Israel of its northern and Transjordanic districts. But Ahaz had to purchase this help at a costly price: he became tributary to Tiglath-pileser, sent him all the treasures of the Temple and his own palace, and even appeared before him in Damascus as a vassal. He also ventured to seek for safety in heathen ceremonies, despite the admonitions of Isaiah, Hosea, and Micah; making his son pass through the fire to Moloch, consulting wizards and necromancers (Isa 8:19), sacrificing to the Syrian gods, introducing a foreign 7) altar from Damascus, and probably the worship of the heavenly bodies from Assyria and Babylon, as he would seem to have set up the horses of the sun mentioned in 2 Kings 23:11; and “the altars on the top (or roof) of the upper chamber of Ahaz” (2 Kings 23:12) were connected with the adoration of the stars. The worship of Jehovah became neglected, and the Temple at length altogether closed.. He died at the age of fifty years, and his body was refused a burial in the royal sepulcher (2 Kings 16, and 2 Chron 28; Isa 7:1). He was succeeded by his son Hezekiah (see Simeon’s Works, 4, 177). (from McClintock and Strong Encyclopedia, Electronic Database. Copyright © 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)


14) HEZEKIAH –  whom Jehovah has strengthened, The thirteenth king of the separate kingdom of Judah, son of Ahaz, born B.C. 751-750 (2 Kings 18:2), and his father’s successor on the throne for twenty-nine years, B.C. 726-697.

The history of Hezekiah’s reign is contained in 2 Kings 18:20; Isa 36:1-39:8, and 2 Chron 29-32, illustrated by contemporary prophecies of Isaiah and Micah. He is represented as a great and good king (2 Kings 18:5,6), who set himself, immediately on his accession, to abolish idolatry, and restore the worship of Jehovah, which had been neglected during the careless and idolatrous reign of his father. This consecration was accompanied by a revival of the theocratic spirit, so strict as not even to spare “the high places,” which, though tolerated by many well-intentioned kings, had naturally been profaned by the worship of images and Asherahs (2 Kings 18:4

The history of this Reformation, commenced with the cleansing of the Temple “in the first month” of Hezekiah’s first year, i.e. in the month Nisan next after his accession, and was followed in the next month (because at the regular season neither Levites nor Temple were in a due state of preparation) by a great Passover, extended to fourteen days, to which not only all Judah was summoned, but also the “remnant” of the Ten Tribes, some of whom accepted the invitation. Some writers  contend that this passover must have been subsequent to the fall of Samaria, alleging that the mention of the “remnant” (2 Chron 30:6) is unsuitable to an earlier period, and that, while the kingdom of Samaria still subsisted, Hezekiah’s messengers would not have been suffered to pass through the land, much less would the destruction of the high places in Ephraim and Manasseh have been permitted (2 Chron 31:1). (from McClintock and Strong Encyclopedia, Electronic Database. Copyright © 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)

It is during the reign of Hezekiah that the Kingdom of Israel is taken into captivity by Assyria in 722-721 BC.


15) MANASSEH –  The only son and successor of Hezekiah on the throne of Judah. He was twelve years old when he began to reign (2 Kings 21:1), and he reigned fifty-five years (698 B.C. – 643 B.C.). Though he reigned so long, yet comparatively little is known of this king. His reign was a continuation of that of Ahaz, both in religion and national polity. He early fell under the influence of the heathen court circle, and his reign was characterized by a sad relapse into idolatry with all its vices, showing that the reformation under his father had been to a large extent only superficial (Isa 7:10; 2 Kings 21:10-15). A systematic and persistent attempt was made, and all too successfully, to banish the worship of Jehovah out of the land. Amid this wide-spread idolatry there were not wanted, however, faithful prophets (Isaiah, Micah) who lifted up their voice in reproof and in warning. But their fidelity only aroused bitter hatred, and a period of cruel persecution against all the friends of the old religion began. Manasseh has been called the “Nero of Palestine.”

Esarhaddon, Sennacherib’s successor on the Assyrian throne, who had his residence in Babylon for thirteen years (the only Assyrian monarch who ever reigned in Babylon), took Manasseh prisoner (681 B.C.) to Babylon. Such captive kings were usually treated with great cruelty. They were brought before the conqueror with a hook or ring passed through their lips or their jaws, having a cord attached to it, by which they were led. This is referred to in 2 Chron 33:11,  “took Manasseh in chains;” or literally, as in the margin, “with hooks.” (Comp. 2 Kings 19:28.)


The severity of Manasseh’s imprisonment brought him to repentance. God heard his cry, and he was restored to his kingdom (2 Chron 33:11-13). He abandoned his idolatrous ways, and enjoined the people to worship Jehovah; but there was no thorough reformation. After a lengthened reign extending through fifty-five years, the longest in the history of Judah, he died, and was buried in the garden of Uzza, the “garden of his own house” (2 Kings 21:17,18; 2 Chron 33:20), and not in the city of David, among his ancestors. He was succeeded by his son Amon.  (from Easton’s Bible Dictionary, PC Study Bible formatted electronic database Copyright © 2003, 2006 Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)


16) AMON – The son of Manasseh (by Meshullemeth the daughter of Haruz of Jotbah), and fifteenth separate king of Judah,  B.C. 642-640. He appears to have derived little benefit from the instructive example which the sin, punishment, and repentance of his father offered; for he restored idolatry, and again set up the images which Manasseh had cast down. To Amon’s reign we must refer the terrible picture which the prophet Zephaniah gives of the moral and religious state of Jerusalem; idolatry supported by priests and prophets (1:4; 3:4), the poor ruthlessly oppressed (3:3), and shameless indifference to evil (3:11). He was assassinated in a court conspiracy; but the people put the regicides to death, and raised to the throne his son Josiah, then but eight years old (2 Kings 21:18-26; 2 Chron 33:20-25). (from McClintock and Strong Encyclopedia, Electronic Database. Copyright © 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)


17) JOSIAH – , healed by Jehovah, The sixteenth king of Judah after its separation from the kingdom of Israel, the son (by Jedidah) and, at the early age of eight years, B.C. 640, the successor of Amon (2 Kings 22:1; 2 Chron 33:1). His history is contained in 2 Kings 22-24; 2 Chron 34; 35; and the first twelve chapters of Jeremiah throw much light upon the general character of the Jews in his days. Avoiding the example of his immediate predecessors, he “did that which was right in the sight of the Lord, and walked in all the ways of David his father, and turned not aside to the right hand or to the left” (2 Kings 22:2; 2 Chron 34:2).

As early as the sixteenth year of his age (B.C. 633) he began to manifest that enmity to idolatry in all its forms which distinguished his character and reign; and he was not quite twenty years old (B.C. 628) when he proclaimed open war against it, although more or less favored by many men of rank and influence in the kingdom (2 Chron 34:3). He then commenced a thorough purification of the land from all taint of idolatry. by going about and superintending in person the operations of the men who were employed in breaking down idolatrous altars and images, and cutting down the groves which had been consecrated to idol worship. His detestation of idolatry could not have been more strongly expressed than by ransacking the sepulchres of the idolatrous priests of former days, and consuming their bones upon the idol altars before they were overturned. Yet this operation, although unexampled in Jewish history, was foretold 345 years before Josiah was born by the prophet who was commissioned to denounce to Jeroboam the future punishment of his sin. He even named Josiah as the person by whom this act was to be performed, and said that it should be performed in Beth-el, which was then a part of the kingdom of Israel (1 Kings 13:2). All this seemed much beyond the range of human probabilities; but it was performed to the letter, for Josiah did not confine his proceedings to his own kingdom, but went over a considerable part of the neighboring kingdom of Israel, which then lay comparatively desolate, with the same object in view; and at Beth-el, in particular, executed all that the prophet had foretold (2 Kings 22:1-19; 2 Chron 34:3-7,32). In these proceedings Josiah seems to have been actuated by an absolute hatred of idolatry, such as no other king since David had manifested, and which David had scarcely occasion to manifest in the same degree. So important was this reformation of the public cults under Josiah that it forms an epoch whence Jeremiah dates many of his prophecies (Jer 25:3,11,29).

In the eighteenth year of his reign and the twenty-sixth of his age (B.C. 623), when the land had been thoroughly purified from idolatry and all that belonged to it, Josiah proceeded to repair and beautify the Temple of the Lord (2 Kings 22:3; 23:23). In the course of this pious labor the high priest Hilkiah discovered in the sanctuary a volume, which proved to contain the books of Moses, and which, from the terms employed, seems to have been considered the original of the law as written by Moses. But it may be observed that it is founded very much on the fact that the king was greatly astonished when some parts of the law were read to him. It is indeed perfectly manifest that he had previously been entirely ignorant of much that he then heard; and he rent his clothes in consternation when he found that, with the best intentions to serve the Lord, he and all his people had been living in the neglect of duties which the law declared to be of vital importance. It is certainly difficult to account for this ignorance. Some suppose that all the copies of the law had perished, and that the king had never seen one. But this is very unlikely; for. however scarce complete copies may have been, the pious king was likely to have been the possessor of one. The probability seems to be that the passages read were those awful denunciations against disobedience with which the book of Deuteronomy concludes, and which, for some cause or other, the king had never before read, or which had never before produced on his mind the same strong conviction of the imminent dangers under which the nation lay, as now when read to him from a volume invested with a character so venerable, and brought with such interesting circumstances under his notice.

The king, in his alarm, sent to Huldah “the prophetess” for her counsel in this emergency,  her answer assured him that, although the dread penalties threatened by the law had been incurred and would be inflicted, he should be gathered in peace to his fathers before the days of punishment and sorrow came.

It was perhaps not without some hope of averting this doom that the king immediately called the people together at Jerusalem, and engaged them in a solemn renewal of the ancient covenant with God. When this had been done, the Passover was celebrated with careful attention to the directions given in the law, and on a scale of unexampled magnificence. (On the public importance of this era, see Ezek 1:1,2.) But all was too late; the hour of mercy had passed; for “the Lord turned not from the fierceness of his great wrath, wherewith his anger was kindled against Judah” (2 Kings 22:3-20; 23:21-27; 2 Chron 34:8-33; 35:1-19).

That removal from the world which had been promised to Josiah as a blessing was not long delayed, and was brought about in a way which he probably had not expected. Pharaoh-necho, king of Egypt, sought a passage through his territories on an expedition against the Chaldaeans; but Josiah refused to allow the march of the Egyptian army through his dominions, and prepared to resist the attempt by force of arms. The appearance of the Hebrew army at Megiddo, however, brought on a battle, in which the king of Judah, although disguised for security, was so desperately wounded by a random arrow that his attendants removed him from the war chariot and placed him in another, in which he was taken to Jerusalem, where he died, after a reign of thirty-one years.  B.C. 609. No king that reigned in Israel was ever more deeply lamented by all his subjects than Josiah. (from McClintock and Strong Encyclopedia, Electronic Database. Copyright © 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)


18) JEHOIACHIN – (Heb. Yehoyakin’, Jehovah appointed;  son of Jehoiakim, king of Judah, by Nehushta, daughter of Elnathan of Jerusalem; he succeeded his father as the nineteenth monarch of that separate kingdom, but only for three months and ten days,  B.C. 598. He was then eighteen years of age according to 2 Kings 24:8

Jehoiachin followed the evil courses which had already brought so much disaster upon the royal house of David and upon the people under its sway. He seems to have very speedily indicated a political bias adverse to the interests of the Chaldaean empire, for in three months after his accession we find the generals of Nebuchadnezzar again laying siege to Jerusalem, according to the predictions of Jeremiah (Jer 22:24-30). Jerusalem at this time was quite defenseless and unable to offer any resistance to the regular army which Nebuchadnezzar sent to besiege it in the eighth year of his reign and which he seems to have joined in person after the siege was commenced (2 Kings 24:10,11). In a very short time, apparently, and without any losses from famine or fighting which would indicate a serious resistance, Jehoiachin surrendered at discretion; and he, and the queen mother, and all his servants, captains, and officers, came out and gave themselves up to Nebuchadnezzar, who treated them, with the harem and the eunuchs, as prisoners of war (Jer 29:2; Ezek 17:12; 19:9). He was sent away as a captive to Babylon, with his mother, his generals, and his troops, together with the artificers and other inhabitants of Jerusalem, to the number of ten thousand. (This number, found in 2 Kings 24:14, is probably a round number, made up of the 7000 soldiers of verse 16 and the 3023 nobles of Jer 52:28, exclusive of the 1000 artificers mentioned in 2 Kings 24:16. Among these was the prophet Ezekiel. Few were left but the poorer sort of people and the unskilled laborers; few indeed, whose presence could be useful in Babylon or dangerous in Palestine. The Babylonian king neglect to remove the treasures which could yet be gleaned from the palace or the Temple and he now made spoil of those sacred vessels of gold which had been spared on former occasions. These were cut up for present use of the metal or for more convenient transport, whereas those formerly taken had been sent to Babylon entire and there laid up as trophies of victory. If the Chaldaean king had then put an end to the show of a monarchy and annexed the country to his own dominions, the event would probably have been less unhappy for the nation; but, still adhering to his former policy, he placed on the throne Mattaniah, the only surviving son of Josiah, whose name he changed to Zedekiah (2 Kings 24:11-16; 2 Chron 36:9,10; Jer 37:1). (from McClintock and Strong Encyclopedia, Electronic Database. Copyright © 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)


19) Babylonian captivity –  Nebuchadnezzar, early in his reign,  B.C. 606-562, repeatedly invaded Judea, and finally besieged Jerusalem, carried away the inhabitants to Babylon, and destroyed the city and Temple. The two principal deportations were, (1) that which took place  B.C. 598, when Jehoiachin, with all the nobles, soldiers, and artificers were carried away; and (2) that which followed the destruction of the Temple and the capture of Zedekiah,  B.C. 588.

In 2 Kings 24:8-16, we find 18,000 carried off at once, in the third month of king Jehoiachin, and in the eighth year of Nebuchadnezzar. After this, the vassal king Zedekiah having rebelled, his city is beleaguered, and finally, in his eleventh year, is reduced by Nebuchadnezzar in person; and in the course of the same year, “the nineteenth of Nebuchadnezzar” (2 Kings 25:8), Nebuzaradan carries away all the population except the peasants. The first expatriation was directed to swell the armies and strengthen the towns of the conqueror; for of the 18,000 then carried away, 1000 were “craftsmen and smiths, all strong and apt for war,” and 7000 of the rest are called “mighty men of valor.” (Yet there is an uncertainty about verses 14 and 16 in 2 Kings 24. Probably here, as well as in Jeremiah 53, heads of families only are counted.) It was not until the rebellion of Zedekiah that Nebuchadnezzar proceeded to the extremity of breaking up the national existence. As the Temple was then burnt, with all the palaces and the city walls, and no government was left but that of the Babylonian satrap.

The captives were treated not as slaves, but as colonists. There was nothing to hinder a Jew from rising to the highest eminence in the state (Dan 2:48), or holding the most confidential office near the person of the king (Neh 1:11; Tob 1:13,22). The advice of Jeremiah (Jer 29:5, etc.) was generally followed. The exiles increased in numbers and in wealth. They observed the Mosaic law (Est 3:8; Tob 14:9). They kept up distinctions of rank among themselves (Ezek 20:1). It is certain that they at least preserved their genealogical tables, and were at no loss to tell who was the rightful heir to David’s throne. They had neither place nor time of national gathering; no temple, and they offered no sacrifice. But the rite of circumcision, and their laws respecting food, etc., were observed; their priests were with them (Jer 29:1); and possibly the practice of erecting synagogues in every city (Acts 15:21) was begun by the Jews in the Babylonian captivity. (from McClintock and Strong Encyclopedia, Electronic Database. Copyright © 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)


20) SHEALTIEL – asked of God; the son of Jechoniah, or Jehoiachin, king of Judah, and father of Zorobabel, according to Matt 1:12, but son of Neri (Neriah) and father of Zorobabel (Zerubbabel) according to Luke 3:27; while the genealogy in 1 Chron 3:17-19 leaves it doubtful whether he is the son of Assir or Jechoniah, and makes Zerubbabel his nephew. The truth seems to be that he was the son of the captive prince Jechoniah, or Jehoiachin (for the prophecy in Jer 22:30 seems only to mean that he should have no successor on the throne), by a daughter of Neri, or Neriah, of the private line of David; and that having himself no heir, he adopted his nephew Zerubbabel, or perhaps was the father of this last by his deceased brother’s widow.  B.C. cir. 580. (from McClintock and Strong Encyclopedia, Electronic Database. Copyright © 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)


21) ZERUBBABEL – sown in Babylon;  the head of the tribe of Judah at the time of the return from the Babylonian captivity in the first year of Cyrus.  B.C. 536. ” On the issuing of Cyrus’s decree, he immediately availed himself of it, and placed himself at the head of those of his countrymen “whose spirit God had raised to go up to build the house of the Lord which is in Jerusalem.” It is probable that he was in the king of Babylon’s service, both from- his having, like Daniel and the three children, received a Ghaldee name (Sheshbazzar), and from’ his receiving from Cyrus the office of governor of Judaea. The restoration of the sacred vessels which Nebuchadnezzar had brought from the Temple having been effected, and copious presents of silver and gold and, goods and beasts having been bestowed upon the captives, Zerubbabel went forth at the head of the returning colony, accompanied by Jeshua the high-priest, and perhaps by the prophets Haggai and Zechariah, and a considerable number of priests, Levites, and heads of houses of Judah and Benjamin, with their followers. On arriving at Jerusalem, Zerubbabel’s first care was to build the altar on its old site, and to restore the daily sacrifice. Perhaps, also, they kept the Feast of Tabernacles, as it is said they did in Ezra 3:4. But his great work, which he set about immediately, was the rebuilding of the Temple. Being armed with a grant from Cyrus of timber and stone for the building, and of money for the expenses of the builders (Ezra 6:4), he had collected the materials, including cedar-trees brought from Lebanon to Joppa, according to the precedent in the time of Solomon (2 Chron 2:16), and got together masons and carpenters to do the work by the opening of, the second year of their return to Jerusalem. Accordingly, in the second month of: the second year of their return, the foundation of the Temple was laid with all the pomp which they could command: — the priests in their vestments with trumpets, and the sons of Asaph with cymbals, singing the very same psalm of praise for God’s unfailing mercy to Israel which was sung when Solomon dedicated his Temple (5:11-14); while the people responded with a great shout of joy “because the foundation of the house of the Lord was laid.” At his bidding the daily sacrifice had been restored after a cessation of half a century, and now the foundations of the Temple were actually laid, amid the songs of the Levites singing according to David’s ordinance, and the shouts’ of the tribe of Judah. It was a heart-stirring situation; and, despite all the discouragements attending it, we cannot doubt that Zerubbabel’s faith and hope were kindled by it into fresh life.

But there were many hindrances and delays to be encountered before the work was finished. The Samaritans  put in a claim to join with the Jews in rebuilding the Temple; and when Zerubbabel and his companions refused to admit them into partnership, they tried to hinder them from building, and hired counselors to frustrate their purpose. They were successful in putting a stop to the work during the seven remaining years of  Cyrus, and through the eight years of Cambyses and Smerdis.

( in Hag 1:4, and 1 Kings 7:3,7). They had, in fact, ceased to care for the, desolation of the Temple (Hag 1:2-4), and had not noticed that God was rebuking their luke warmness by withholding his blessing from their labors (ver. 5-11). But in the second year of Darius light dawned upon the darkness of the colony from Babylon.. In that year-it was the: most memorable event in Zerubbabel’s life-the spirit of prophecy suddenly blazed up with a most brilliant light among the returned captives; and the long silence which was to ensue till the ministry of John the Baptist was preceded by the stirring utterances of-Haggai and Zechariah. Their words fell like sparks upon tinder. In a moment Zerubbabel, roused from his apathy, threw his whole strength into the work, zealously seconded by Jeshua and all the people. Undeterred by a fresh attempt of their enemies to hinder the progress of the building, they went on with the work even while a reference was made to Darius; and when, after ‘the original decree of Cyrus had been found at Ecbatana, a most gracious and favorable decree was issued by- Darius, enjoining Tatnai and Shetharboznai to assist the Jews with whatsoever they had need of at the king’s expense, the work advanced so rapidly that on the third day of the month Adar, in the sixth year of Darius, the; Temple was finished, and was forthwith dedicated with much pomp and rejoicing.

The other works of Zerubbabel which we learn from the Scripture history are the restoration of the courses of priests and Levites, and of the provision for their maintenance, according to the institution of David (Ezra 6:18; Neh 12:47); — the registering of the returned captives according to their genealogies (7:5); and the keeping of a Passover in the seventh year of Darius, with which last event ends all that we know of the life of Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel   (from McClintock and Strong Encyclopedia, Electronic Database. Copyright © 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)


22) ABIHUD – The great-great-grandson of Zerubbabel, and father of Eliakim, among the paternal ancestry of Jesus (Matt 1:13, where the name is Anglicized “Aliud”); (from McClintock and Strong Encyclopedia, Electronic Database. Copyright © 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)


23) Christ is the Greek form of the Hebrew Messiah. Both of these words mean the anointed one, or the chosen one.


24) Engagement –  A man and woman were betrothed, each to the other, when they were engaged to be married. Among the Hebrews this relation was usually determined by the parents or brothers, without consulting the parties until they came to be betrothed. The engagement took place very early, as is still the case in Oriental countries, though it was not consummated by actual marriage until the spouse was at least twelve years of age. The betrothing was performed a year or more before the marriage, either in writing, or by a piece of silver given to the espoused before witnesses, as a pledge of their mutual engagements. Sometimes a regular contract was made, in which the bridegroom always bound himself to give a certain sum as a portion to his bride. From the time of espousal, however, the woman was considered as the lawful wife of the man to whom she was betrothed: the engagement could not be ended by the man without a bill of divorce; nor could she be unfaithful without being considered an adulteress. Thus Mary, after she was betrothed to Joseph, might, according to the rigor of the law, have been punished if the angel of the Lord had not acquainted Joseph with the mystery of the incarnation. (from McClintock and Strong Encyclopedia, Electronic Database. Copyright © 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)


25) Jesus is the Greek form of the Hebrew name Joshua or Yeshua. It means the Lord saves.


26) Immanuel is note to be the name of the child, it is a description of what the child is. It is made up of three Hebrew words; imman means us, u means with, and el is God. God with us.


27) HEROD – Antony took Herod under his protection, and, seeing that he might prove useful to him, obtained a decree of the senate appointing him king of Judaea. These events took place in B.C. 40. He died a few days before the Passover, B.C. 4.

Though technically Jewish by birth, since his family was from the Idumeans (Edomites), who had been forcibly converted to Judaism under the Hasmonean Maccabees in the second century B.C.E., neither his religious behavior nor his ethics reflected anything of Judaism. He did, however, reconstruct and enlarge the Second Temple, which had been built under Zarubbabel in 520 B.C. – 516 B.C.

Herod was consistently paranoid about his power. He had all his rivals exterminated, including those of his wife’s family (he had married Mariamne, a Hasmonean, and feared the restoration of the Hasmonean dynasty) and even some of his own children (he had fifteen). He built remote fortresses, Herodion and Masada, as refuges should he be deposed. The events described in 2:1-17 are entirely in keeping with the man’s independently attested character.(from Jewish New Testament Commentary Copyright © 1992 by David H. Stern. All rights reserved. Used by permission.) (from McClintock and Strong Encyclopedia, Electronic Database. Copyright © 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)


28) MAGI – The term magi was used as the name for priests and wise men among the Medes, Persians, and Babylonians.  While the priests and literati were known by the general name of magi, they were also known by the name of wise men, and likewise Chaldaeans (Isa 44:52; Jer 1; 35; Dan 2:12-27; 4:6,18; 5; 7; 11; 12, 15). To their number doubtless belonged the astrologers and star-gazers (Isa 47:13). So, also, the Chaldee soothsayers and dream-interpreters either denote various orders of magi, or they are merely different names of the same general class (Dan 1:20; 2:2; 10:27; 4:7; 5:7, 11). (from McClintock and Strong Encyclopedia, Electronic Database. Copyright © 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)


29) His star. This seems to allude to Numbers 24:17, where Balaam prophesies, “There shall come forth a star out of Jacob.” Judaism understands this “star” to be the Messiah. (from Jewish New Testament Commentary Copyright © 1992 by David H. Stern. All rights reserved. Used by permission.)


30) Gold, frankincense, and myrrh. Visits were seldom paid to sovereigns without a present. “Frankincense” was an aromatic used in sacrificial offerings; “myrrh” was used in perfuming ointments. These, with the gold which they presented, seem to show that the offerers were persons in affluent circumstances. That the gold was presented to the infant King in token of His royalty; the frankincense in token of His divinity, and the myrrh, of his sufferings; or that they were designed to express His divine and human natures; or that the prophetic, priestly, and kingly offices of Christ are to be seen in these gifts; or that they were the offerings of three individuals respectively, each of them kings, the very names of whom tradition has handed down;-all these are, at the best, precarious suppositions. But that the feelings of these devout givers are to be seen in the richness of their gifts, and that the gold, at least, would be highly serviceable to the parents of the blessed Babe in their unexpected journey to Egypt and stay there-thus much at least admits of no dispute. (from Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown Commentary, Electronic Database. Copyright © 1997, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)


31) Under cover of darkness, Joseph obeyed, and his family left Bethlehem and journeyed into Egypt. Why Egypt? The Messiah was sent to and returned from Egypt so that the prophet’s words, Out of Egypt I called My Son, might be fulfilled. This is a reference to Hos 11:1, which does not seem to be a prophecy in the sense of a prediction. Hosea was writing of God’s calling Israel out of Egypt into the Exodus. Matthew, however, gave new understanding to these words. Matthew viewed this experience as Messiah being identified with the nation. There were similarities between the nation and the Son. Israel was God’s chosen “son” by adoption (Ex 4:22), and Jesus is the Messiah, God’s Son. In both cases the descent into Egypt was to escape danger, and the return was important to the nation’s providential history. While Hosea’s statement was a historical reference to Israel’s deliverance, Matthew related it more fully to the call of the Son, the Messiah, from Egypt. In that sense, as Matthew “heightened” Hosea’s words to a more significant event – the Messiah’s return from Egypt – they were “fulfilled.” (from Bible Knowledge Commentary/Old Testament Copyright © 1983, 2000 Cook Communications Ministries; Bible Knowledge Commentary/New Testament Copyright © 1983, 2000 Cook Communications Ministries. All rights reserved.)


32)  Archelaus, one of Herod’s surviving sons, exhibited his father’s worst flaws and was also a bad ruler. That his mother was a *Samaritan surely also failed to commend him to his Jewish subjects. His rule was unstable, and the Romans ultimately deposed him and banished him to Gaul (France). (from IVP Bible Background Commentary: New Testament by Craig S. Keener Copyright © 1993 by Craig S. Keener. Published by InterVarsity Press. All rights reserved.)


33) The fact that the family moved to Nazareth was once again said to be in fulfillment of prophecy (Matt 2:23). However, the words He will be called a Nazarene, were not directly spoken by any Old Testament prophet, though several Prophecies come close to this expression. Isaiah said the Messiah would be “from [Jesse’s] roots” like “a Branch” (Isa 11:1). “Branch” is the Hebrew word neser, which has consonants like those in the word “Nazarene” and which carry the idea of having an insignificant beginning.

Since Matthew used the plural prophets, perhaps his idea was not based on a specific prophecy but on the idea that appeared in a number of prophecies concerning Messiah’s despised character. Nazareth was the town which housed the Roman garrison for the northern regions of Galilee. Therefore most Jews would not have any associations with that city. In fact those who lived in Nazareth were thought of as compromisers who consorted with the enemy, the Romans. Therefore to call one “a Nazarene” was to use a term of contempt. So because Joseph and his family settled in Nazareth, the Messiah was later despised and considered contemptible in the eyes of many in Israel. This was Nathanael’s reaction when he heard Jesus was from Nazareth (John 1:46): “Can anything good come from there?” This concept fit several Old Testament prophecies that speak of the lowly character of the Messiah (e.g., Isa 42:1-4). Also the term “Nazarene” would have reminded Jewish readers of the similar-sounding word “Nazirite” (Num 6:1-21). Jesus was more devoted to God than the Nazirites. (from Bible Knowledge Commentary/Old Testament Copyright © 1983, 2000 Cook Communications Ministries; Bible Knowledge Commentary/New Testament Copyright © 1983, 2000 Cook Communications Ministries. All rights reserved.)


34) JOHN THE BAPTIST – was of the priestly race by both parents, for his father Zacharias was himself a priest of the family of Abijah, offering incense at the very time when a son was promised to him; and Elizabeth was of the daughters of Aaron (Luke 1:5), the latter relative of Mary, the mother of Jesus, whose senior John was by a period of six months (Luke 1). Both parents, too, were devout persons, walking in the commandments of God and waiting for the fulfillment of his promise to Israel. The divine mission of John was the subject of prophecy many centuries before his birth, for Matt 3:3 tells us that it was John who was prefigured by Isaiah as “the voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make his paths straight” (Isa 40:3), while by the prophet Malachi the Spirit announces more definitely, “Behold, I will send my messenger, and he shall prepare the way before me” (Isa 3:1). His birth — a birth not according to the ordinary laws of nature, but through the miraculous interposition of Almighty power — was foretold by an angel sent from God, who announced it as an occasion of joy and gladness to many, and at the same time assigned to him the name of John, to signify either that he was to be born of God’s especial favor, or, perhaps, that he was to be the harbinger of grace. Elizabeth delivered a son,  B.C. 6. The exact spot where John was born is not determined.

A single verse contains all that we know of John’s history for a space of thirty years, the whole period which elapsed between his birth and the commencement of his public ministry: “The child grew and waxed strong in the spirit, and was in the deserts till the day of his showing unto Israel” (Luke 1:80). John it will be remembered, was ordained to be a Nazarite (see Num 6:1-21) from his birth, for the words of the angel were, “He shall drink neither wine nor strong drink” (Luke 1:15)

The very appearance of the holy Baptist was of itself a lesson to his countrymen; his dress was that of the old prophets — a garment woven of camel’s hair (2 Kings 1:8), attached to the body by a leathern girdle. His food was such as the desert spontaneously afforded — locusts (Lev 11:22) and wild honey (Ps 81:16) from the rock. (from McClintock and Strong Encyclopedia, Electronic Database. Copyright © 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)


35) John’s baptism –  Not altogether a new rite, for it was the custom of the Jews to baptize proselytes to their religion; not an ordinance in itself conveying remission of sins, but rather a token and symbol of that repentance which was an indispensable condition of forgiveness through him whom John pointed out as “the Lamb of God that taketh away the sins of the world.” Still less did the baptism of John impart the grace of regeneration of a new spiritual life (Acts 19:3,4). This was to be the mysterious effect of baptism “with the Holy Ghost,” which was to be ordained by that “mightier one” whose coming he proclaimed. The preparatory baptism of John was a visible sign to the people, and a distinct acknowledgment by them that a hearty renunciation of sin and a real amendment of life were necessary for admission into the kingdom of heaven, which the Baptist proclaimed to be at hand. But the fundamental distinction between John’s baptism unto repentance and that baptism accompanied with the gift of the Holy Spirit which our Lord afterwards ordained is clearly marked by John himself (Matt 3:11,12). (from McClintock and Strong Encyclopedia, Electronic Database. Copyright © 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)


36) PHARISEES – The Qualfications for Menbership of the Pharisaic Association. — The most essential conditions which were enacted from everyone who wished to become a member of the Pharisaic association were two. Each candidate was required to promise in the presence of three members that —

(i)         He would set apart all the sacred tithes on the produce of the land, and refrain from eating anything which had not been tithed, or about the tithing of which there was any doubt; and

(ii)        He would scrupulously observe the most essential laws of purity which so materially affected the eating of food and all family affairs.(from McClintock and Strong Encyclopedia, Electronic Database. Copyright © 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)


37) SADDUCEES –  The Tenets and Practices of the Sadducees. — To apprehend duly the doctrines and usages of this sect, it must be borne in mind that the Sadducees were the aristocratic and conservative priestly party, who clung to their ancient prerogatives and resisted every innovation which the ever-shifting circumstances of the commonwealth demanded; while their opponents, the Pharisees, were the liberals, the representatives of the people their principle being so to develop and modify the Mosaic law as to adapt it to the requirements of the time, and to make the people at large realize that they were “a people of priests, a holy nation.” Thus,

standing immovably upon the ancient basis, the Sadducees, whose differences were at first chiefly political, afterwards extended these differences to doctrinal, legal, and ritual questions.(from McClintock and Strong Encyclopedia, Electronic Database. Copyright © 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)


38)  The sandals were tied and untied, and borne about by the lowest of the servants.


39) winnowing is an agricultural method developed by ancient cultures for separating grain from chaff. It is also used to remove weevils or other pests from stored grain. Threshing, the loosening of grain or seeds from the husks and straw, is the step in the chaff-removal process that comes before winnowing.

In its simplest form it involves throwing the mixture into the air so that the wind blows away the lighter chaff, while the heavier grains fall back down for recovery. Techniques included using a winnowing fan (a shaped basket shaken to raise the chaff) or using a tool (a winnowing fork or shovel) on a pile of harvested grain.


40) To fulfil all righteousness. That is, Every righteous ordinance: so I think the words should be translated;  The following passage, quoted from Justin Martyr, will doubtless appear a strong vindication of this translation. “Christ was circumcised, and observed all the other ordinances of the law of Moses, not with a view to his own justification; but to fulfil the dispensation committed to him by the Lord, the God and Creator of all things.”-Wakefield. (from Adam Clarke’s Commentary, Electronic Database. Copyright © 1996, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)


41) “Desert” or “wilderness” is also the symbol in Scripture of temptation, solitude, and persecution (Isa 27:10; 33:9). The figure is sometimes emblematical of spiritual things, as in Isa 41:19; also in Isa 32:15, where it refers to nations in which there was no knowledge of God or of divine truth, that they should be enlightened and made to produce fruit unto holiness. A desert is mentioned as the symbol of the Jewish Church and people, when they had forsaken their God (Isa 40:3); it is also spoken of with reference to the conversion of the Gentiles (Isa 35:1). The solitude of the desert is a subject often noticed (Job 38:26; Jer 9:2). The desert was considered the abode of evil spirits. or at least their occasional resort (Matt 12:43; Luke 11:24). (from McClintock and Strong Encyclopedia, Electronic Database. Copyright © 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)


42) DEVIL –  This term signifies one who impugns another’s character for the purpose of injuring it, a slanderer, the arch enemy of man’s spiritual interest, whom the Jews represented as continually impugning the character of saints before God (comp. Job 1:6; Rev 12:10; Zech 3:1). with a reference to forensic usages. It is used with the article as a descriptive name of Satan, except that in John 6:70, it is applied to Judas (as “Satan’ to Peter in Matt 16:23), because they — the one permanently, and the other for the moment — were doing Satan’s work The name describes him as slandering God to man, and man to God. See DIABOLUS. a. The former work is, of course, a part of the great work of temptation to evil.(from McClintock and Strong Encyclopedia, Electronic Database. Copyright © 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)


43) [And when he had fasted forty days] It is remarkable that Moses, the great lawgiver of the Jews, previously to his receiving the law from God, fasted forty days in the mount; that Elijah, the chief of the prophets, fasted also forty days; and that Christ, the giver of the New Covenant, should act in the same way. Was not all this intended to show that God’s kingdom on earth was to be spiritual and divine?-that it should not consist in meat and drink, but in righteousness, peace, and joy in the Holy Spirit. Moses, Elijah, and our blessed Lord could fast forty days and forty nights, because they were in communion with God, and living a heavenly life. (from Adam Clarke’s Commentary, Electronic Database. Copyright © 1996, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)


44) Jesus quotes from Deuteronomy 8:3. This is a reminder to the Jewish people that God cared for their ancestor as the wandered for 40 years in the wilderness. God provided for them manna to meet their daily needs as he promised he would. God had promised that he would send a savior for his people and for all people. Jesus is also telling us that he is the answer to all God’s promises.


45) Shortly after he had given his testimony to the Messiah, John’s public ministry was brought to a close. He had, at the beginning of it, condemned the hypocrisy and worldliness of the Pharisees and Sadducees, and he had now occasion to denounce the lust of a king. In daring disregard of the divine laws, Herod Antipas had taken to himself the wife of his brother Philip; and when John reproved him for this, as well as for other sins (Luke 3:19), Herod cast him into prison. Josephus, however, assigns a somewhat different cause for Herod’s act from that given in the Gospels: “Now some of the Jews thought that the destruction of Herod’s army came from God, and that very justly, as a punishment of what he did against John that was called the Baptist; for Herod slew him, although he was a good man, and commanded the Jews to exercise virtue, both as to righteousness one towards another and piety towards God, and so to come to baptism. Now when others came in crowds about him — for they were greatly moved by hearing his words — Herod, who feared lest the great influence John had over the people might put it into his power and inclination to raise a rebellion (for they seemed ready to do anything he should advise), thought it best, by putting him to death, to prevent any mischief he might cause, and not bring himself into difficulties by sparing a man who might make him repent of it when it should be too late. Accordingly he was sent a prisoner, out of Herod’s suspicious temper, to Machaerus, the castle I before mentioned, and was there put to death” (Ant. 18, 5, 2). There is no contrariety between this account and that which is given in the New Testament.  Both may be true: John was condemned in the mind of Herod on political grounds, as endangering his position, and executed on private and ostensible grounds, in order to gratify a malicious but powerful woman. The scriptural reason was but the pretext for carrying into effect the determination of Herod’s cabinet.

The event, indeed, proved that John was to Herod what Elijah had been to Ahab, and a prison was deemed too light a punishment for his boldness in asserting God’s law before the face of a king and a queen. Nothing but the death of the Baptist would satisfy the resentment of Herodias. Though foiled once, she continued to watch her opportunity, which at length arrived. A court festival was kept in honor of the king’s birthday. After supper the daughter of Herodias, came in and danced before the company, and so charmed was the king by her grace that he promised with an oath to give her whatsoever she should ask. Salome, prompted by her abandoned mother, demanded the head of John the Baptist. The promise had been given in the hearing of his distinguished guests, and so Herod, though loath to be made the instrument of so bloody a work, gave instructions to an officer of his guard, who went and executed John in the prison, and his head was brought to feast the eyes of the adulteress whose sins he had denounced. According to the Scripture account, the daughter of Herodias obtained the Baptist’s head at the entertainment, without delay.  (from McClintock and Strong Encyclopedia, Electronic Database. Copyright © 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)

46) PETER – was the son of a man named Jonas (Matt 16:17; John 1:43; 21:16), and was brought up in his father’s occupation, a fisherman on the sea of Tiberias (Galilee). The occupation was of course a humble one, but not, as is often assumed, mean or servile, or incompatible with some degree of mental culture. His family were probably in easy circumstances.

It is uncertain at what age Peter was called by our Lord. The general impression of the early church fathers is that he was an old man at the date of his death, but this need not imply that he was much older than our Lord. He was probably between thirty and forty years of age at the date of his first call. That call was preceded by a special preparation. He and his brother Andrew, together with their partners, James and John, the sons of Zebedee, were disciples of John the Baptist (John 1:35).

Jesus changes Simon’s name to Cephas. Cephas in Hebrew means rock or stone. The Greek word for Stone is Petros, from where we get the name Peter. The change of name is of course deeply significant.  He bore as a disciple the name Simon, i.e., hearer; but as an apostle, one of the twelve on whom the Church was to be erected, he was hereafter to be called Rock or Stone. (from McClintock and Strong Encyclopedia, Electronic Database. Copyright © 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)


47) The Greek word here is praeis (praeis) which is better translated as humble or gentle. There no intent of weakness associated with this word.


48) The Greek word here is kaqaroi (katharoi) which is better translated as clean instead of pure.


49) SALT –  Indispensable as salt is to ourselves, it was even more so to the Hebrews, being to them not only an appetizing condiment in the food both of man (Job 6:6) and beast (Isa 30:24), and a most valuable antidote to the effects of the heat of the climate on animal food, but also entering largely into their religious services as an accompaniment to the various offerings presented on the altar (Lev 2:13).

The associations connected with salt in Eastern countries are important. As one of the most essential articles of diet, it symbolized hospitality; as an antiseptic, durability, fidelity, and purity. Hence the expression, “covenant of salt” (Lev 2:13; Num 18:19; 2 Chron 13:5. (from McClintock and Strong Encyclopedia, Electronic Database. Copyright © 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)







50) Raka – (raka) – is an Aramaic word that means  empty headed one, i.e. you’re worthless (as a term of utter vilification): (Biblesoft’s New Exhaustive Strong’s Numbers and Concordance with Expanded Greek-Hebrew Dictionary. Copyright © 1994, 2003, 2006 Biblesoft, Inc. and International Bible Translators, Inc.)


51) SANHEDRIM – consisted of seventy-one judges. From Num 11:16, where it is said, ‘Gather unto me seventy men of the elders of Israel.’ To these add Moses, and we have seventy-one.

These members represented three classes of the nation, viz.

(a) The priests, who were represented by their chiefs, called in the Bible the chief priests

(b) The elders, also called the elders of the people because they were the heads of the families and tribes of the people, for which reason these elders, who most probably were also twenty-four in number (Rev 4:4), were the representatives of the laity, or the people generally.

(c) The scribes or lawyers who, as the interpreters of the law in ecclesiastical and civil matters, represented that particular portion of the community which consisted of the literary laity, and most probably were twenty-two in number. As the chief priests, elders, and scribes constituted the supreme court, these three classes are frequently in the New Test. called by the word Sanhedrim.

  1. Qualification and Recognition of Members. — The qualifications for membership were both very minute and very numerous. The applicant had to be morally and physically blameless. He had to be middle aged, tall, good looking, wealthy, learned (both in the divine law and diverse branches of profane science, such as medicine, mathematics, astronomy, magic, idolatry, etc.), in order that he might be able to judge in these matters. He was required to know several languages, so that the Sanhedrim might not be dependent upon an interpreter in case any foreigner or foreign question came before them.

In addition to all these qualifications, a candidate for the Great Sanhedrim was required, first of all, to have been a judge in his native town; to have been transferred from there to the Small Sanhedrim, which sat at the Temple mount or at its entrance, thence again to have been advanced to the second Small Sanhedrim, which sat at the entrance of the Temple hall before he could be received as member of the seventy-one. (from McClintock and Strong Encyclopedia, Electronic Database. Copyright © 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)


52) Fool could better be translated today as moron. It is from the Greek word moros (mo-ros’); it means dull or stupid: (Biblesoft’s New Exhaustive Strong’s Numbers and Concordance with Expanded Greek-Hebrew Dictionary. Copyright © 1994, 2003, 2006 Biblesoft, Inc. and International Bible Translators, Inc.)


53)  The Pharisees were notorious for their oaths, which were made on the least provocation. Yet they made allowances for mental reservations within their oaths. If they wanted to be relieved of oaths they had made by heaven… by the earth… by Jerusalem, or by one’s own head, they could argue that since God Himself had not been involved their oaths were not binding. (from Bible Knowledge Commentary/Old Testament Copyright © 1983, 2000 Cook Communications Ministries; )

54) The words Eye for eye, and tooth for tooth come from several Old Testament passages (Ex 21:24; Lev 24:20; Deut 19:21); they are called the lex talionis, the law of retaliation. This law was given to protect the innocent and to make sure retaliation did not occur beyond the offense. Jesus pointed out, however, that while the rights of the innocent were protected by the Law, the righteous need not necessarily claim their rights. A righteous man would be characterized by humility and selflessness. Instead he might go “the extra mile” to maintain peace. When wronged by being struck on a cheek, or sued for his tunic (undergarment; a cloak was the outer garment), or forced to travel with someone a mile, he would not strike back, demand repayment, or refuse to comply. Instead of retaliating he would do the opposite, and would also commit his case to the Lord who will one day set all things in order. (from; Bible Knowledge Commentary/New Testament Copyright © 1983, 2000 Cook Communications Ministries. All rights reserved.)


55)  The poorest people of the Empire (e.g., most peasants in Egypt) had only an inner and outer garment, and the theft of a cloak would lead to legal recourse. Although conditions in first-century Palestine were not quite that bad, this verse could indicate divestiture of all one’s possessions, even (*hyperbolically) one’s clothes, to avoid a legal dispute affecting only oneself. Jesus gives this advice in spite of the fact that, under Jewish law, a legal case to regain one’s cloak would have been foolproof: a creditor could not take a poor person’s outer cloak, which might serve as one’s only blanket at night as well as a coat (Ex 22:26-27). (from IVP Bible Background Commentary: New Testament by Craig S. Keener Copyright © 1993 by Craig S. Keener. Published by InterVarsity Press. All rights reserved.)


56)  Roman soldiers had the legal right to impress the labor, work animal or substance of local residents (cf. Mark 15:21). Although impressment may not have happened often in Galilee, it happened elsewhere, and the fact that it could happen would be enough to raise the eyebrows of Jesus’ hearers at this example of nonresistance and even loving service to the oppressor. (from IVP Bible Background Commentary: New Testament by Craig S. Keener Copyright © 1993 by Craig S. Keener. Published by InterVarsity Press. All rights reserved.)


57)  The *Aramaic word for “perfect” can mean “complete” or “whole,” including the nuance of “merciful” (Luke 6:36); in this context, it means fulfilling the requirements of Matt 5:21-47. The Bible already commanded being holy as God is holy (Lev 11:44-45; 19:2; 20:26), and Judaism (as well as some Greek philosophers) sometimes argued ethics on the basis of imitating God’s character. (from IVP Bible Background Commentary: New Testament by Craig S. Keener Copyright © 1993 by Craig S. Keener. Published by InterVarsity Press. All rights reserved.)


58) the word here that is translated as money by the NIV translation is the Aramaic word Mammon. A better translation for this word would be possessions.


59 the Greek word that is translated as feed is trefei (trephei) it would be better to translate it as cares for or provides for. It carries with it the idea of more than just feeding.


60)  The word translated as pagan here, is the Greek word eqnh (ethna) it is better translated in this passage as other nations or peoples.


61) The word translated as run after here is the Greek word epizhtousin (epidzatousin) is better translated as strive for or seek after. The idea is that this is something that they are putting effort into getting.


62) The idea here in the Greek is that tomorrow will bring with it its own concerns.


63)  Pigs and dogs were considered unclean animals, which had no appreciation for valuable things. Pigs typically ate the vilest foods, and dogs were scavengers, consuming even human blood. Stray dogs were known to growl at those who tossed them food as well as those who ignored them. The image would thus be forceful and beyond dispute for ancient hearers. (from IVP Bible Background Commentary: New Testament by Craig S. Keener Copyright © 1993 by Craig S. Keener. Published by InterVarsity Press. All rights reserved.)


64) The Greek that is translated as ask is aiteite, and it is better translated desire, crave or beg for. Grammatically it is also written as a command.




65)  The nearest legion of Roman troops was stationed in Syria; many troops were also stationed at Caesarea on the Mediterranean coast and in the fortress Antonia in Jerusalem; Capernaum, as a customs post, would naturally have warranted at least some soldiers. Centurions commanded a “century,” but in practice this consisted of sixty to eighty troops, not one hundred. They were the backbone of the Roman army, in charge of discipline. (from IVP Bible Background Commentary: New Testament by Craig S. Keener Copyright © 1993 by Craig S. Keener. Published by InterVarsity Press.)


66)  During their twenty or so years of service in the Roman army, soldiers were not permitted to marry. Many had illegal local concubines, an arrangement that the army overlooked and the concubines found profitable; but centurions, who might be moved around more frequently, would be less likely to have such informal families than most soldiers. By ancient definitions, however, a household could include servants, and household servants and masters sometimes grew very close — especially if they made up the entire family unit. Centurions were paid much better than lower-ranking troops; servants were too expensive for common soldiers. (from IVP Bible Background Commentary: New Testament by Craig S. Keener Copyright © 1993 by Craig S. Keener. Published by InterVarsity Press.)


67) The Greek text does not mention a feast. But only says that those from the east and the west will sit down with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob in the Kingdom. This verse reflects the standard Jewish image of the future banquet in God’s *kingdom. Although the Bible declared that it was for all peoples (Isa 25:6; cf. 56:3-8), Jewish literature by this period emphasized that it was prepared for Israel, who would be exalted over its enemies. People were seated at banquets according to rank. Jesus also brings this idea into Christianity is his teaching on the wedding feast in Luke 14:15-24. This idea can also be found in Revelation 19:9



68)  One of an eldest son’s most basic responsibilities (in both Greek and Jewish cultures) was his father’s burial. The initial burial took place shortly after a person’s decease, however, and family members would not be outside talking with *rabbis during the reclusive mourning period immediately following the death. It has recently been shown that what is in view here instead is the secondary burial: a year after the first burial, after the flesh had rotted off the bones, the son would return to rebury the bones in a special box in a slot in the tomb’s wall. The son in this narrative could thus be asking for as much as a year’s delay.

Nevertheless, Jesus’ demand that the son place him above the greatest responsibility a son had toward his father would have sounded like heresy: in Jewish tradition, honoring father and mother was one of the greatest commandments, and to follow Jesus at the expense of not burying one’s father would have been viewed as dishonoring one’s father (cf. Tob 4:3-4). (from IVP Bible Background Commentary: New Testament by Craig S. Keener Copyright © 1993 by Craig S. Keener. Published by InterVarsity Press. All rights reserved.)


69) “Gergesenes” would seem the true one, and not “Gerasenes” or “Gadarenes” While the manuscript evidence for it is satisfactory, some recent geographical discoveries seem to favour it. Gadara perhaps denoted the general locality. Josephus (Ant. xvii. 11 , 4) speaks of it as the chief city of Perea, and a Greek city. It or its suburbs lay on the southern shore of the lake on the east side. Possibly the reading “Gergesenes,” which seems a corrupted form of “Gadarenes,” originated in that tract of country being still called after the “Girgashites” of ancient Canaan. (from Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown Commentary, Electronic Database. Copyright © 1997, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)


70) In both Mark 5:2 and Luke 8:27 there is only one man mentioned. Matthew is the only one who tells this story using two men.


71) [What have we to do with you]  is the literal translation of  the Greek phrase here; which perhaps might be understood to imply their disclaiming any design to interfere with the work of Christ, and that he should not therefore meddle with them; for it appears they exceedingly dreaded his power. (from Adam Clarke’s Commentary, Electronic Database. Copyright © 1996, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)


72) The Greek text leaves out the name Jesus. Jesus here is referred to the demons simply as the Son of God.


73)  We are told that some demons have been locked in the abyss and will be set free to punish the earth (Rev. 9:1-11). We are also told the final punishment for the devil and his angels will take place in the Book of Revelation Chapter 20:1-10.


74) Matthew tells us in 4: 13 that Jesus left Nazareth and he went and lived in Capernaum, which was by the lake in the area of Zebulun and Naphtali.

75)  Judaism believed that only God could forgive sins, but most Jews allowed that some of God’s representatives could speak on God’s behalf. The *Old Testament penalty for blaspheming God’s name — reproaching rather than honoring it — was death (Lev 24:10-23). According to later *rabbinic law, blasphemy technically involved pronouncing the divine name or perhaps inviting people to follow other gods. According to the more common, less technical usage, it applied to any grievous insult to God’s honor (cf. Num 15:30). But these legal scholars were mistaken in interpreting Jesus’ words as blasphemy, by any definition. (from IVP Bible Background Commentary: New Testament by Craig S. Keener Copyright © 1993 by Craig S. Keener. Published by InterVarsity Press. All rights reserved.)


76) Jesus ask the religious leaders this question because of the belief that sickness, disease and physical problems were brought on by sin. It may have been the sins of the parents passed on to the son or the sins of the man himself. This thought process is brought up by the disciples in John 9:1-2 when talking about the man born blind. Jesus is saying, to them, you believe that sin causes this so both statements mean the same thing.


77) Tax collectors were among the most hated people in Israel. They were Jews but they collected taxes for the Roman government. They were given an amount to collect and anything above that amount was theirs to keep. Many tax collectors cheated the people to become rich at the peoples expense. You can see in this passage that they are put into a different category than other sinners.


78) The Greek in this passage eleoz qelw kai qusian is better translated as I will have mercy and not sacrifice.


79) [A certain ruler] There were two officers in the synagogue overseer of the congregation; and the head or ruler of the congregation. The overseer takes the book of the Law, and gives it to the ruler; and he appoints who shall read the different sections, etc. Jairus, who is the person intended here, was the ruler of one of the synagogues, probably at Capernaum. Mark 5:22 and Luke 8:41 give us his name. (from Adam Clarke’s Commentary, Electronic Database. Copyright © 1996, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)


80) Flutes were used among the Jews, in times of calamity or death. This is evident from Jer 48:36. Persons were hired on purpose to follow the funeral processions with lamentations. See Jer 9:17-21; Amos 5:16. Even the poorest among the Jews were required to have two Flute players, and one mourning woman. (from Adam Clarke’s Commentary, Electronic Database. Copyright © 1996, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)




81) The end of verse 23 provides us with a problem. We know that Jesus has not come back yet, so how do we interpret what Matthew is telling us Jesus has said. First of all I will tell you that most commentaries bypass this part of the verse or just gloss over it. There are two other ways in which it is dealt with.

  1. A) this passage is interpreted from the view that this part of this verse is talking about the tribulation times. This in itself provides some problems. In this verse Jesus is talking to the disciples about their ministry in spreading the gospel to the people of Israel. Why would Jesus go from talking to the disciples about their ministry at that time to talking about the end times. This argument does not seem to make sense to me.
  2. B) the other interpretation of this passage seems to make more sense to me. First of all this passage appears in both Luke and Mark also.

Mark is the first gospel written so it often assumed that Mark is the most accurate as he has no specific agenda or audience for which he is writing. In Mark 9:1 this passage reads, “I tell you the truth, some who are standing here will not taste death before they see the Kingdom of God come in power”. Matthew leaves off the phrase “in power.”

The first thing we must do here is understand what is meant by the Kingdom of God. Often we understand this to mean heaven, but I think this is a misunderstanding of what the kingdom of God is. Heaven and the final judgement are the culmination of the Kingdom of God. The Kingdom of God began with the coming of Jesus Christ and the growth of the early church and the Kingdom of God continues to grow as new Christians are added to the Kingdom.

I believe that this passage can be understood as Jesus telling the disciples they are going to see things very shortly that will show them the power of God active in their world. They will see the Transfiguration of Jesus on the mountain. They will see the resurrection of Jesus from the dead. They will also see the ascension of Jesus back into heaven. All of these events show God at work within the world.


82) All the Greek manuscripts write “Beelzebul,” which undoubtedly is the right form of this word. The other reading came in no doubt from the Old Testament “Baalzebub,” the god of Ekron (2 Kings 1:2), which it was designed to express. As all idolatry was regarded as devil-worship (Lev 17:7; Deut 32:17; Ps 106:37; 1 Cor 10:20), so there seems to have been something peculiarly Satanic about the worship of this hateful god, which caused his name to be a synonym of Satan. Though we nowhere read that our Lord was actually called “Beelzebul,” He was charged with being in league with Satan under that hateful name (Matt 12:24,26), and more than once Himself was charged with “having a devil” or “demon” (Mark 3:30; John 7:20; 8:48). Here it is used to denote the most opprobrious language which could be applied by one to another. (from Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown Commentary, Electronic Database. Copyright © 1997, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)


83) The Greek word omologhsei translated as acknowledge would be better translated as confess


84) The Greek word apnhshtai translated as disown would be better translated as deny or refuse.

85)  The Greek word here eirhnhn  means peace. This is a translation of the Hebrew word mloc (Shalom).  The word Shalom  was used among the Hebrews to express all possible blessings, temporal and spiritual; but especially the former.-The expectation of the Jews was, that, when the Messiah should come, all temporal prosperity should be accumulated on the land of Judea. The import of our Lord’s teaching here is this, Do not imagine, as the Jews in general vainly do, that I am come to send forth peace and prosperity, by forcing out the Roman power. I am not come for this purpose, but to send forth persecution and struggle.


86) A disciple is a follower or student of a teacher. Every teacher had his disciples who followed and learned from him. John also had his followers. Andrew and Peter started out as disciples of John the Baptizer.


87) A better translation of the end of this verse may be; “the kingdom of heaven has been greatly or violently opposed, and the urgent people work hard to enter the kingdom.” The idea here is that to enter or seek the kingdom of heaven is not easy. There will be those who will work hard to oppose you, so you should expect that you also will have to work hard.


88) The Greek word eprofetusan which is translated here as prophesied might be better translated as have spoken for God.  A prophets calling was to speak to the people for God. Here Jesus is calling scriptures of the Old Testament the words of God. Most Christians would agree that the New Testament are the inspired Word of God. Jesus is claiming the same status for the Old Testament.


89) “Behold, I will send you Elijah the prophet before the coming of the great and dreadful day of the Lord” (Mal 4:5,6). Our Savior also declares that Elijah had already come in spirit, in the person of John the Baptist. Many of the Jews in our Lord’s time believed him to be Elijah, or that the soul of Elijah had passed into his body (Luke 9:8). How deep was the impression which he made on the mind of the nation may be judged from the fixed belief which many centuries after prevailed that Elijah would again appear for the relief and restoration of his country. The prophecy of Malachi was possibly at once a cause and an illustration of the strength of this belief. Each remarkable person, as he arrives on the scene, be his habits and characteristics what they may — the stern John, equally with his gentle Successor — is proclaimed to be Elijah (Matt 16:14; Mark 6:15; John 1:21). (from McClintock and Strong Encyclopedia, Electronic Database. Copyright © 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)




90)  The word which is translated as woe here would be better to translated as, alas for you, than woe to you. Alas is an exclamation of pity; woe is a denunciation of wrath. It seems evident that Jesus used it in the sense of pity for these towns.

It is not known precisely where Chorazin was situated; but as Christ joins it in the same censure with Bethsaida, which was in Upper Galilee, beyond the sea, it is likely that Chorazin was in the same area.


91) Tyre and Sidon – ancient and celebrated commercial cities, on the northeastern shores of the Mediterranean sea, lying north of Israel, Since their wealth and prosperity engendered luxury and  evil-irreligion and moral degeneracy-their overthrow was repeatedly foretold in ancient prophecy, and once and again fulfilled by victorious enemies. Yet they were rebuilt, and at this time were in a flourishing condition. (from Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown Commentary, Electronic Database. Copyright © 1997, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)


92) Capernaum is the home base of Jesus during the whole period of His public life which He spent in Galilee. Some may have felt that this gave it a special or exalted place in the world.


93) This verse should read; “come to me all who are worn out from your labors also those who are over burdened and I will give you rest and refreshment.


94) there are two purposes for a yoke. The first is to control and animal when it is used for plowing or pulling a wagon or cart. The second use for a yoke is to keep the animals going in the same direction and so that two animals can share the weight of the work that needs to be done. I believe that the second purpose of the yoke is what Jesus is talking about. Jesus does not wish to control us but to help us in completing the work that we are to do.


95) The Greek word here is praus is translated as gentle. I believe a better translation for the word would be considerate or caring. The Greek word here is tapeinos  it is translated as humble. It can also be translated as disciplined. This idea comes from the Old Testament idea of spiritual disciple, submitting to God. This would be the better translation especially since in this passage it is linked to the heart which is the seat of our faith.


96) the Greek word here is anapausin it is translated as rest. The idea behind the word is more a break or intermission.




97) HEROD ANTIPAS  was the son of Herod the Great, by Malthace, a Samaritan (Joseph. Ant. 17, 1, 3; War, 1, 28, 4). His father had already given him “the kingdom” in his first will. but in the final arrangement left him the tetrarchy of Galilee and Persea (Josephus, Ant. 17, 8,1; War, 2, 9,1; Matt 14:1; Luke 3:1 3:19 9:1; Acts 13:1), which brought him the yearly revenue of 200 talents (Josephus, Ant. 18, 5, 1). On his way to Rome he visited his brother Philip, and commencing an intrigue with his wife Herodias, daughter of Aristobulus, the son of Mariamne, he afterwards incestuously married her. He had previously been married to a daughter of Aretas, king of Arabia Petrsea, who avenged this insult by invading his dominions, and defeated him with great loss (Josephus, Ant. 18, 5, 1). An appeal to the Romans afforded the only hope of safety. Aretas was haughtily ordered by the emperor to desist from the prosecution of the war, and Herod accordingly escaped the expected overthrow. Josephus says that the opinion of the Jews was that the defeat was a punishment for his having imprisoned John the Baptist on account of his popularity, and afterwards put him to death, but does not mention the reproval that John gave him, nor that it was at the instigation of Herodias that he was killed, as recorded in the Gospels (Joseph. Ant. 18, 5, 4; Matt 14:1-11; Mark 6:1:1416; Luke 3:19;. 9:7-9).  In  A.D. 38, after the death of Tiberius, he was persuaded, especially at the ambitious instigation of Herodias. to go to Rome to procure for himself the royal title. Agrippa, who was high in the favor of Caligula, and had already received this title, opposed this with such success that Antipas was condemned to perpetual banishment at Lyons, a city of Gaul (Joseph. Ant. 18, 7, 2), and eventually died in Spain, whither his wife Herodias had voluntarily followed him (War, 2, 9, 6). He is called (by courtesy) king by Matthew (Matt 14:9) and by Mark (Mark 6:14).

It was before Herod Antipas, who came up to Jerusalem to celebrate the Passover (comp. Joseph. Ant. 18:6, 3), that our Lord was sent for examination when Pilate heard that he was a Galilaean, as Pilate had already had several disputes with the Galileans, and was not at this time on very good terms with Herod (Luke 13:1; 23:6-7), and “on the same day Pilate and Herod were made friends together” (Luke 23:12; comp. Josephus, Ant. 18, 3, 2; Ps 83:5). The name of Herod Antipas is coupled with that of Pilate in the prayer of the apostles mentioned in the Acts (4:24-30). His personal character is little touched upon by either Josephus or the evangelists, yet from his consenting to the death of John the Baptist to gratify the malice of a wicked woman, though for a time he had “heard him gladly” (Mark 6:20), we perceive his cowardice, his want of spirit, and his fear of ridicule. His wicked oath was not binding on him, for Herod was bound by the law of God not to commit murder. He was in any case desirous to see Jesus, and “hoped to have seen a miracle from him” (Luke 23:8). (from McClintock and Strong Encyclopedia, Electronic Database. Copyright © 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)


98) [The fourth watch] Anciently the Jews divided the night into three watches, consisting of four hours each. The first watch is mentioned, Lam 2:19: the second, Judg 7:19; and the third, Ex 14:24; but a fourth watch is not mentioned in any part of the Old Testament. This division the Romans had introduced in Judea. The first watch began at six o’clock in the evening, and continued till nine; the second began at nine, and continued till twelve; the third began at twelve, and continued till three next morning; and the fourth began at three, and continued till six. It was therefore between the hours of three and six in the morning that Jesus made his appearance to his disciples. (from Adam Clarke’s Commentary, Electronic Database. Copyright © 1996, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)


99) tradition, has occupied a most distinguished place, both in the Jewish and Christian church. Man is ever fond of mending the work of his Maker; and hence, he has been led to put his finishing hand even to divine revelation! This supplementary matter has been called paradosis, to deliver from hand to hand-to transmit. Among the Jews, tradition signifies what is also called the oral law, which they distinguish from the written law: this last contains the Mosaic precepts, as found in the Pentateuch: the former, the traditions of the elders, i.e. traditions, or doctrines, that had been successively handed down from Moses through every generation, but not committed to writing. The Jews feign that, when God gave Moses the written law, he gave him also the oral law, which is the interpretation of the former. (from Adam Clarke’s Commentary, Electronic Database. Copyright © 1996, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)


100) Corban means “a gift.” If a Jew wanted to escape some financial responsibilities, he would declare his goods to be “Corban – a gift to God.” This meant he was free from other obligations, such as caring for his parents. (from The Bible Exposition Commentary. Copyright © 1989 by Chariot Victor Publishing, and imprint of Cook Communication Ministries. All rights reserved. Used by permission.)


101) Tyre and Sidon are situated in Phoenicia, on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea. They are on the northern edge of Israel. They are mentioned in Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and the minor prophets. They are used as examples of excess and materialism among the Gentiles that surround Israel. They were two very important trading cities and were known for shipping and ship building. This area is known to the Jewish people as part of Canaan.


102) Mark tells us that the woman was a Greek, that is, ‘a Gentile,’ ; a Syrophoenician by nation-so called as inhabiting the Phoenician tract of Syria. Matthew calls her “a woman of Canaan” – a more intelligible description to his Jewish readers. (from Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown Commentary, Electronic Database. Copyright © 1997, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)


103) Jesus’ first feeding miracle (Matt 14:13-21) was not an exception; he was able to repeat it at any time.(from IVP Bible Background Commentary: New Testament by Craig S. Keener Copyright © 1993 by Craig S. Keener. Published by InterVarsity Press. All rights reserved.)


104) Magadan (v. 39) was Mary Magdalene’s hometown; it has been identified with Tarichea, where many fishermen seem to have worked.(from IVP Bible Background Commentary: New Testament by Craig S. Keener Copyright © 1993 by Craig S. Keener. Published by InterVarsity Press. All rights reserved.)




105) Cesarea Philippi. It lay at the foot of mount Lebanon, near the sources of the Jordan, in the territory of Dan, and at the northeast extremity of Palestine. It was originally called Panium (from a cavern in its neighborhood dedicated to the god Pan) and Paneas. Philip, the tetrarch, the only good son of Herod the Great, in whose dominions Paneas lay, having beautified and enlarged it, changed its name to Cesarea, in honor of the Roman emperor, and added Philippi after his own name, to distinguish it from the other Cesarea (Acts 10:1) on the northeast coast of the Mediterranean sea. (Joseph Ant. xv. 10, 3; xviii. 2,1.) This quiet and distant retreat Jesus appears to have sought, with the view of talking over with the Twelve the fruit of His past labors, and breaking to them for the first time the sad intelligence of His approaching death.(from Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown Commentary, Electronic Database. Copyright © 1997, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)


106) This phrase is better translated; Who do people say that I, the Son of Man am? There is no question that Jesus is talking about himself in this statement. It is also an I AM statement of Jesus. In his I AM statements Jesus is telling the disciples that he is God, by referring to himself with the term I AM which is the name of God from the Hebrew.


107) ELIJAH – This belief comes from Malachi 4:5 “Behold, I will send you Elijah the prophet before the coming of the great and dreadful day of the Lord”. The impression which Elijah made on the mind of the nation may be judged from the fixed belief which many centuries after prevailed that Elijah would again appear for the relief and restoration of his country. (from McClintock and Strong Encyclopedia, Electronic Database. Copyright © 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)


108)  “Peter” and “Rock” are one word in the Aramaic Cephas. In Greek Peter is Petros and rock is Petra. These are form of the same word.


109) This passage includes so many allusions to God revealing his glory to Moses on Mount Sinai that most ancient Jewish readers would certainly have caught them. The six days alludes to Ex 24:16, when God began to speak to Moses from his cloud on the mountain. (from IVP Bible Background Commentary: New Testament by Craig S. Keener Copyright © 1993 by Craig S. Keener. Published by InterVarsity Press. All rights reserved.)


110) In Ex 34:29, Moses’ face radiated glory because of God’s revelation of himself to Moses. We are told that Moses had to cover his face because the people could not bear to look at him.


111) Moses and Elijah had been in the presence of God while they were still alive, and both of them on the same mountain. Moses represents the Law given by God to the people of Israel and Elijah represents the Prophets of which he was the greatest. Elijah had been such a man of God that he was taken up to heaven in a chariot of fire and did not die. The two of them represent all the chances God has given the people of Israel to follow Him. In Jesus god provides his final plan in bringing people to Him. Jesus is the completion of all that the Law and Prophets have said. It is also the beginning of the Kingdom Period in which the Gentiles will join in the promises of God to the Jewish people.


112) The booths or tents suggest the tent in the wilderness where God’s worship took place and also the Feast of Tabernacles. There is some reason to believe that in this period, the Feast of Tabernacles was marked by enthusiasm over the coming triumph of Israel. Zech. 14:16-19 prophesies that all nations will come up to Jerusalem to worship at the Feast of Tabernacles. Peter may think that the final age is come and Moses and Elijah will remain there permanently. He therefore wants to build shelters for them to dwell in as they began the reign of Jesus the Messiah. ( The Interpreters Bible Vol. 7 Abingdon Press )


113) In the Greek is says that the man’s son is moonstruck. This is someone who was most affected with this disorder at the change and full of the moon. The KJV translates this as lunatic which has come to mean crazy, but it did not at the time of Jesus.


114) There are two schools of thought on who Jesus is speaking to here.

1) Jesus is speaking to the disciples only. By this time, they should have been able to heal this young boy and it is only their lack of faith which has kept them from being able to do this. There are a couple of problems with this thinking. a) The disciples are neither unbelieving or perverse and Jesus would not call them that because it is untrue. They may be weak or lacking in faith but that is not eh same as unbelieving and perverse. b) Jesus will never give up on the disciples so I do not believe he would make the statement, “how long will I put up with you” to them. He may get frustrated with them, but he would never not put up with them.

2) Jesus is speaking to everyone there. The disciples, the religious leaders, and the man. Jesus would have and did at other times call the religious leaders and unbelieving and perverse generation, so it is nothing new for him to speak to them in this way. “How long shall I stay with you” is something that he has said to the disciples before and it expresses his frustration with their seeming lack of faith to heal this boy. Jesus knows that it will not be long now before he will be leaving the disciples and he wants the m to be ready to carry on the work. “How long shall I put up with you.” I believe is aimed at the religious leaders also for the same reasons mentioned above. The only problem that I see with this school of thought is that I don’t believe that Jesus would condemn the father for it his faith that has brought him to Jesus and his disciples to find healing for his son.

So let’s say there are three schools of thought!


115) Some Bible translations have a verse 21 and some do not. Verse 21 reads, “But this kind does not go out except by prayer and fasting.” The verse does not appear in early translations but does appear in some later translations. And it also does not fit with concern about the disciples lack of faith. Most Scholars believe it should not be a part of the text.

116) Temple tax- payable, toward the maintenance of the Temple and its services, by every male Jew of twenty years old and upwards. For the origin of this annual tax, see Ex 30:13-14; 2 Chron 24:6,9. Thus, it will be observed, it was not a civil, but an ecclesiastical tax. The tax mentioned in the next verse was a civil one. The whole teaching of this very remarkable scene depends upon this distinction. (from Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown Commentary, Electronic Database. Copyright © 1997, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)


117) millstone — for grinding corn, mentioned as used in the time of Abraham (Gen 18:6). That used by the Hebrews consisted of two circular stones, each 2 feet in diameter and half a foot thick, the lower of which was called the “nether millstone” (Job 41:24) and the upper the “rider.” The upper stone was turned around by a stick fixed in it as a handle. There were then no public mills, and thus each family required to be provided with a hand-mill. The corn was ground daily, generally by the women of the house (Isa 47:1,2; Matt 24:41). (from Easton’s Bible Dictionary, PC Study Bible formatted electronic database Copyright © 2003, 2006 Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)


118) Verse 11 does not appear in all ancient manuscripts but it does appear in a number of them. Some translations include this verse some do not. Arguments can be made for in being included or excluded as to whether it fits into the text. In my opinion it does seem to link the little ones statement of Jesus with the illustration of the lost sheep. Without verse 11 this passage seems disjointed.




119)  This procedure was standard Jewish custom; the *Dead Sea Scrolls, the *rabbis and others demand that one begin with private reproof. Publicly shaming someone unnecessarily was considered sinful, and Jewish teachers stressed the importance of receiving reproof. (from IVP Bible Background Commentary: New Testament by Craig S. Keener Copyright © 1993 by Craig S. Keener. Published by InterVarsity Press. All rights reserved.)


120) The words, bind and loose, is used in a declaratory sense, of things, not of persons. Whatsoever in the Greek, appears in the neuter gender here in this: i.e. Whatsoever thing or things ye shall bind or loose. (from Adam Clarke’s Commentary, Electronic Database. Copyright © 1996, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)





121) The question from the disciples begins a new discussion which may have taken place at the same time or at a different time.


122) Eunuch –  has, in its literal (Greek) sense, the harmless meaning of “bed-keeper,” i.e., one who has the charge of beds and bed-chambers; but as only persons deprived of their virility have, from the most ancient times, been employed in Oriental harems, and as such persons are employed almost exclusively in this kind of service, the word “bed-keeper” became synonymous with “castratus.” Castration, according to Josephus (Ant. 4:8, 40), was not practiced by the Jews upon either men or animals,  though it is referred to in the Old testament. Apparently  though the word intended a class of attendants who were not always mutilated.

The law, Deut 23:1 (comp. Lev 22:24), is repugnant to thus treating any Israelite; and Samuel, when describing the arbitrary power of the future king (1 Sam 8:15, marg.), mentions “his eunuchs,” but does not say that he would make “their sons” such. This, if we compare 2 Kings 20:18; Isa 39:7, possibly implies that these persons would be foreigners. It was a barbarous custom of the East thus to treat captives (Herod. 3:49; 6:32), not only of tender age (when a non-development of beard, and feminine mold of limbs and modulation of voice ensues), but, it would seem, when past puberty, which there occurs at an early age. (from McClintock and Strong Encyclopedia, Electronic Database. Copyright © 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)

















123) There have been many attempts to explain this passage. I will mention a few of them here

1) there is a small gate within the main gate, called the eye of the needle, by which a person could enter a city without opening the main gate for safety reasons. A loaded camel could not enter this gate until it was unloaded and then it must crawl through on its knees.


2) The word here is not camel but cable or large rope. The rope would have to be taken apart and each piece put through the eye of the needle.


3) Jesus felt it was impossible for a rich person to enter the kingdom of heaven. The problem here is how do we define rich?


124) A denarius was an average day’s wage.



125) When our Lord saw this fig tree by the way-side, apparently flourishing, he went to it to gather some of the figs: being on the way-side, it was not private, but public property; and any traveler had an equal right to its fruit. As it was not as yet the time for gathering in the fruits, and yet about the time when they were ready to be gathered, our Lord with propriety expected to find some. But as this happened about five days before that Passover on which Christ suffered, and the Passover that year fell on the beginning of April, it has been asked, “How could our Lord expect to find ripe figs in the end of March?” Answer, Because figs were ripe in Judea as early as the Passover. Besides, the fig tree puts forth its fruit first, and afterward its leaves. Indeed, this tree, in the climate which is proper for it, has fruit on it all the year round, as I have often seen. All the difficulty in the text may be easily removed by considering that the climate of Judea is widely different from that of Great Britain. The summer begins there in March, and the harvest at the Passover, as all travelers into those countries testify; therefore, as our Lord met with this tree five days before the Passover, it is evident,-Firstly, that it was the time of ripe figs: and, secondly. That it was not the time of gathering them, because this did not begin until the Passover, and the transaction here mentioned took place five days before.


For further satisfaction on this point, let us suppose:

  1. That this tree was intended to point out the state of the Jewish people.
  2. They made a profession of the true religion.
  3. They considered themselves the peculiar people of God, and despised and reprobated all others.
  4. They were only hypocrites, having nothing of religion but the profession-leaves, and no fruit.
  5. That our Lord’s conduct towards this tree is to be considered as emblematical of the treatment and final perdition which was to come upon this hypocritical and ungodly nation.
  6. It was a proper time for them to have borne fruit: Jesus had been preaching the doctrine of repentance and salvation among them for more than three years; the choicest influences of Heaven had descended upon them; and everything was done in this vineyard that ought to be done, in order to make it fruitful.
  7. The time was now at hand in which God would require fruit, good fruit; and, if it did not produce such, the tree should be hewn down by the Roman axe. Therefore,
  8. The tree is properly the Jewish nation.
  9. Christ’s curse the sentence of destruction which had now gone out against it; and,
  10. Its withering away, the final and total ruin of the Jewish state by the Romans. His cursing the fig tree was not occasioned by any resentment at being disappointed at not finding fruit on it, but to point out unto his disciples the wrath which was coming upon a people who had now nearly filled up the measure of their iniquity.

A fruitless soul, that has had much cultivation bestowed on it, may expect to be dealt with as God did with this unrighteous nation.

(from Adam Clarke’s Commentary, Electronic Database. Copyright © 1996, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)

126) HERODIANS , the designation of a class of Jews that existed in the time of Jesus Christ, evidently, as the name imports, partisans of Herod, but whether of a political or religious description it is not easy, for want of materials, to determine. The passages of the New Testament which refer to them are the following: Mark 3:6; 12:13; Matt 22:16; Luke 20:20. From these it appears that the ecclesiastical authorities of Judaea held a council against our Savior, and, associating with themselves the Herodians, sent an embassy to him with the express but covert design of ensnaring him in his speech, that thus they might compass his destruction, by embroiling him. But what additional difficulty did the Herodians bring? Herod Antipas was now tetrarch of Galilee and Persea, which was the only inheritance he received from his father, Herod the Great. As tetrarch of Galilee he was specially the ruler of Jesus, whose home was in that province. The Herodians, then, may have been subjects of Herod, Galilueans, whose evidence the priests were desirous of procuring, because theirs would be the evidence of fellow-countrymen, and of special force with Antipas as being that of his own immediate subjects (Luke 23:7). Herod’s relations with Rome were in an unsafe condition. He was a weak prince, given to ease and luxury, and his wife’s ambition conspired with his own desires to make him strive to obtain from the emperor Caligula the title of king. For this purpose he took a journey to Rome, but he was banished to Lyons, in Gaul. The Herodians may have been favorers of his pretensions; if so, they would be partial hearers, and eager witnesses against Jesus before the Roman tribunal. It would be a great service-to the Romans to be the means of enabling them to get rid of one who aspired to be king of the Jews. It would equally gratify their own lord should the Herodians give effectual aid in putting a period, to the mysterious yet formidable claims of a rival claimant of the crown. If the Herodians were a Galilaean political party who were eager to procure from Rome the honor of royalty for Herod (Mark 6:14, the name of king is merely as of courtesy), they were chosen as associates by the Sanhedrim with especial propriety. This idea is confirmed by Josephus’s mention of a party as “the partisans of Herod” (Ant. 14, 15, 10). The deputation were to “feign themselves just men,” that is, men whose sympathies were entirely Jewish, and, as such, anti-heathen: they were to intimate their dislike of paying tribute, as being an acknowledgment of a foreign yoke; and by flattering Jesus, as one who loved truth, feared no man, and would say what he thought, they meant to inveigle him into a condemnation of the practice. In order to carry these base and hypocritical designs into effect, the Herodians were appropriately associated with the Pharisees; for as the latter were the recognized conservators of Judaism, so the former were friends of the aggrandizement of a native as against a foreign prince. (from McClintock and Strong Encyclopedia, Electronic Database. Copyright © 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)


127) By the seat of Moses, we are to understand authority to teach the law. Moses was the great teacher of the Jewish people; and the scribes, etc., are here represented as his successors. (from Adam Clarke’s Commentary, Electronic Database. Copyright © 1996, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)


128) Phylacteries, which means to keep or preserve. These were small slips of parchment or vellum, on which certain portions of the law were written. The Jews tied these about their foreheads and arms, for three different purposes.

  1. To put them in mind of those precepts which they should constantly observe.
  2. To procure them reverence and respect in the sight of the pagan. And
  3. To act as amulets or charms to drive away evil spirits.

The first use of these phylacteries is evident from their name. The second use appears from what is written, in Deut 28:10. All the people of the earth shall see that thou art called by the name (of Yahweh)-and they shall be afraid of thee.The third use of them appears from the Targum, on Song 8:3. His left hand is under my head, etc. “The congregation of Israel hath said, I am elect above all people, because I bind my phylacteries on my left hand, and on my head, and the scroll is fixed to the right side of my gate, the third part of which looks to my bed-chamber, that demons may not be permitted to INJURE me.”

Even the phylactery became an important appendage to a Pharisee’s character, insomuch that some of them wore them very broad, either that they might have the more written on them, or that, the characters being larger, they might be the more visible, and that they might hereby acquire greater esteem among the common people, as being more than ordinarily religious. (from Adam Clarke’s Commentary, Electronic Database. Copyright © 1996, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)


129)  For the same reason, they wore the fringes of their garments of an unusual length. Moses had commanded (Num 15:38-39) the children of Israel to put fringes to the borders of their garments, that, when they looked upon even these distinct threads, they might remember, not only the law in general, but also the very minutiae, or smaller parts of all the precepts, rites, and ceremonies, belonging to it. As these hypocrites were destitute of all the life and power of religion within, they endeavored to supply its place by phylacteries and fringes without. (from Adam Clarke’s Commentary, Electronic Database. Copyright © 1996, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)



130) The NIV and some Greek manuscripts omit this verse. It may have been added because of Mark 12:40 and Luke 20:47. If it is authentic here, the number of woes is eight.

131) the word that is translated hell here is GEHENNA, the “valley of Hinnone,” or “of the son” or children of Hinnom,” a deep narrow glen to the south of Jerusalem, where, after the introduction of the worship of the fire-gods by Ahaz, the idolatrous Jews offered their children to Moloch (2 Chron 28:3; 33:6; Jer 7:31; 19:2-6). In consequence of these abominations the valley was polluted by Josiah (2 Kings 23:10); subsequently to which it became the common lay-stall of the city, where the dead bodies of criminals, and the carcasses of animals, and every other kind of filth was cast, and, according to late and some, what questionable authorities, the combustible portion consumed with fire. From the depth and narrowness of the gorge, and, perhaps, its ever-burning fires, as well as from its being the receptacle of all sorts of putrefying matter, and all that defiled the holy city, it became in later times the image of the place of everlasting punishment, “where their worm does  not die, and the fire is not quenched;” in which the Talmudists placed the mouth of bell: “There are two palm-trees in the valley of Hinnom, between which a smoke ariseth … and this is the door of Gehenna” (from McClintock and Strong Encyclopedia, Electronic Database. Copyright © 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)

132) The national punishment of all the innocent blood which had been shed in the land, shall speedily come upon you, from the blood of Abel the just, the first prophet and preacher of righteousness, Heb 11:4; 2 Peter 2:5, to the blood of Zachariah, the son of Barachiah. It is likely that our Lord refers to the murder of Zechariah, mentioned 2 Chron 24:20, who said to the people, Why do you transgress the commandments of God, so that you cannot prosper? Because you have forsaken the Lord, he has forsaken you. And they conspired against him and stoned him-at the commandment of the king, in the court of the house of the Lord. And when he died, he said, The Lord look upon and require it: Matt 23:21-22.

But it is objected, that this Zechariah was called the son of Jehoiada, and our Lord calls this one the son of Barachiah. Let it be observed:

  1. That double names were frequent among the Jews; and sometimes the person was called by one, sometimes by the other.
  2. That Jerome says that, in the Gospel of the Nazarenes, it was Jehoiada, instead of Barachiah.
  3. That Jehoiada and Barachiah have the very same meaning, the praise or blessing of Yahweh.
  4. That as the Lord required the blood of Zechariah so fully that in a year all the princes of Judah and Jerusalem were destroyed by the Syrians, and Joash, who commanded the murder, slain by his own servants, 2 Chron 24:23-25, and their state grew worse and worse, till at last the temple was burned, and the people carried into captivity by Nebuchadnezzer: -so it should also be with the present race. The Lord would, after the crucifixion of Christ, visit upon them the murder of all those righteous men, that their state should grow worse and worse, till at last the temple should be destroyed, and they finally ruined by the Romans.

Some think that our Lord refers, in the spirit of prophecy, to the murder of Zacharias, son of Baruch, a rich Jew, who was judged, condemned, and massacred in the temple by Idumean zealots, because he was rich, a lover of liberty, and a hater of wickedness. They gave him a mock trial; and, when no evidence could be brought against him of his being guilty of the crime they laid to his charge, namely a design to betray the city to the Romans, and his judges had pronounced him innocent, two of the stoutest of the zealots fell upon him and slew him in the middle of the temple. See Josephus, WAR, b. 4 chap. 5  s. 5. See Crevier, vol. 6 p. 172, History of the Roman Emperors. (from Adam Clarke’s Commentary, Electronic Database. Copyright © 1996, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)


132) 1. Josephus says (War, b. 2 c. 13 ), that there were many who, pretending to divine inspiration, deceived the people, leading out numbers of them to the desert, pretending that God would there show them the signs of liberty, meaning redemption from the Roman power: and that an Egyptian false prophet led 30,000 men into the desert, who were almost all cut off by Felix. See Acts 21:38. It was a just judgment for God to deliver up that people into the hands of false Christs who had rejected the true one. Soon after our Lord’s crucifixion, Simon Magus appeared, and persuaded the people of Samaria that he was the great power of God, Acts 8:9-10; and boasted among the Jews that he was the son of God.

  1. Of the same stamp and character was also Dositheus, the Samaritan, who pretended that he was the Christ foretold by Moses.
  2. About twelve years after the death of our Lord, when Cuspius Fadus was procurator of Judea, arose an impostor of the name of Theudas, who said he was a prophet, and persuaded a great multitude to follow him with their best effects to the river Jordan, which he promised to divide for their passage; and saying these things, says Josephus, he deceived many: almost the very words of our Lord.
  3. A few years afterward, under the reign of Nero, while Felix was procurator of Judea, impostors of this stamp were so frequent that some were taken and killed almost every day. Jos. Ant. b. 20 c. 4 . and 7 . (from Adam Clarke’s Commentary, Electronic Database. Copyright © 1996, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)


133)  Some interpreters believe that parts of Daniel’s prophecy remain to be fulfilled; others believe that all of it was fulfilled in the first century.

The first-century Jewish historian *Josephus felt that Daniel was fulfilled when *Zealots slaughtered the priests in the temple in A.D. 66 A.D., committing a sacrilege for which God brought about the desolation of the temple (human bloodshed in the temple desecrated it; cf. comment on Matt 23:35). This sacrilege would have been the signal for Christians to flee Jerusalem (24:16); early Christian historians tell us that Christian prophets warned the Jewish Christians to flee Jerusalem at this time.

The temple was left “desolate” in 70, when the Romans destroyed it with fire and then erected their own standards on the site. As Jewish people knew (it is lamented in the *Dead Sea Scrolls), these standards bore the insignia of the Roman emperor, who was worshiped as divine in the Eastern Mediterranean; they would thus have sealed the site’s desecration. Jerusalem’s citizens had felt that even bringing these standards into Jerusalem temporarily (as Pilate had done roughly three and one-half years before Jesus uttered this warning) defiled the holy city. On several occasions the Jerusalemites had shown that they preferred death to their temple’s defilement. (from IVP Bible Background Commentary: New Testament by Craig S. Keener Copyright © 1993 by Craig S. Keener. Published by InterVarsity Press. All rights reserved.)


134) The word here in Greek is better translated as eagle. This does not change the meaning of the verse as eagles will eat carrion also.


135) The word here that is translated as nations or peoples may better be translated as tribes.  The word translated as earth is better translated as land. This may be a reference to the tribes of Israel. Since Israel is often referred to in the old testament as the people of the land. It may also mean all people.


136) The term great glory very likely refers to the Old Testament term Shekinah Glory which refers to the glory of the presence of the Lord.


137) The word Trumpet probably refers to the Shofar, “ram’s horn,” or, loosely, “trumpet.” The ram’s horn is blown at the season of the Jewish High Holy Days, one hundred times on Rosh-HaShanah (New Year), also called the Feast of Trumpets; and once at the end of Yom-Kippur (Day of Atonement). Judaism also understands that the Day of Judgment will be announced by blasts on the shofar. Ten Tanakh verses mentioning the shofar are recited in the Rosh-HaShanah synagogue service. (from Jewish New Testament Commentary Copyright © 1992 by David H. Stern. All rights reserved. Used by permission.)


138) The word translated here as generation may be better translated as people. If “this people” is the correct translation of Greek, Yeshua (Jesus) is guaranteeing that the Jews will persist as a people until his second coming. He is echoing the promise of Jeremiah 31:34-36(35-37):

“Thus says Adonai, who gives the sun for a light by day and the ordinances of the moon and stars for a light by night, who stirs up the sea and its roaring waves—Adonai of Heaven’s Armies is his name: If those ordinances depart from before me, says Adonai, then the seed of Israel also will stop being a nation before me forever. Thus says Adonai: If heaven above can be measured and the foundations of the earth beneath searched out, then I will also cast off all the seed of Israel for all that they have done.”

Thus after proclaiming the New Covenant at Jeremiah 31:30-33(31-34), God immediately states that the Jewish people will last at least as long as the sun and the moon. Both Yeshua (Jesus) and Jeremiah refute Replacement theology. (from Jewish New Testament Commentary Copyright © 1992 by David H. Stern. All rights reserved. Used by permission.)

Matthew Bible Study Questions


The Genealogy of Jesus: Matthew 1:1-16

1) How does Matthew start his gospel? (vs 1) (Note 1)


2) Which son of Jacob does the genealogy go through? (vs 2)


3) Who is Perez’s mother? (vs 3) (Note 2)


4) Who is Boaz’s mother? (vs 5) (Note 3)


5) Who is the mother of Obed? (vs 5) (Note 4)


6) Who does the first third of the genealogy end with? (vs 6)


7) Who is Solomon’s mother? (vs 6) (Note 5)


8) Who is Solomon the father of? (vs 7) (Note 6)


9) Who is Rehoboam father of? (vs 7) (Note 7)


10) Who is Abijah the father of? (vs  7-8) (Note 8)


11) Who is Asa the father of? (vs 8) (Note 9)


12) Who is Jehoshaphat the father of? (vs 8) (Note 10)


13) Who is Jehoram the father of? (vs 8-9) (Note 11)


14) Who is Uzziah the father of? (vs 9) (Note 12)


15) Who is Jotham the father of? (vs 9) (Note 13)


16) Who is Ahaz the father of? (vs 9-10) (Note 14)


17 Who is Hezekiah the father of? (vs 10) Note 15)


18) Who is Manasseh the father of? (vs 10) (Note 16)


19) Who is Amon the father of?  (vs 10-11) (Note 17)

20) Who is Josiah the father of? (vs 11) (Note 18)


21) Where does verse 12 start? (vs 12) (Note 19)


22) Who is Jeconiah the father of? (vs 12) (Note 20)


23) Who is Shealtiel the father of? (vs 12-13) (Note 21)


24) Who is Zarubbabel the father of? (vs 13) (Note 22)


25) Who is Jacob the father of? (vs 15-16)


26) What does Matthew tell us Jesus is called? (vs 16) (Note 23)


27) How many generations are in each group? (vs 17)


An Angel Appears to Joseph; Matthew 1:18-25

1) What is the relationship between Mary and Joseph? (vs 18) (Note 24)


2) What happened before they came together? (vs 18)


3) What does Matthew tell us about Joseph? (vs 19)


4) What did joseph plan to do? (vs 19)


5) How and when does the angel appear to joseph? (vs 20)


6) What does the angel tell Joseph? (vs 20)


7) What does the Angel tell Joseph to name the baby? (vs 21) (Note 25)


8) Why does Matthew tell us all this took place? (vs 22)


9) What did the prophet say? (vs 23)


10) What did the prophet say they would call the child? (vs 23) (Note 26)


11) What does Joseph do and when? (vs 24)

12) What does Joseph not do? (vs 25)


13) What does Joseph name the child? (25)


Visitors Arrive from Eastern Lands; Matthew 2:1-12

1) Where was Jesus born and when? (vs 1) (Note 27)


2) Who came to Jerusalem from the east? (vs 1-2) (Note 28)


3) What do the Magi ask? (vs 2) (Note 29)


4) What is Herod’s response when he hears this? (vs 3)


5) Who does Herod ask about the birth of the Messiah? (vs 4)


6) Where do they tell him the Messiah will be born? (vs 5)


7) What does Micah 5:2 say about the Messiah or ruler of Judah? (vs 6)


8) What does Herod find out from the Magi? (vs 7)


9) What does Herod tell the Magi to do? (vs 8)


10) Why does Herod he wants them to find the child? (vs 8)


11) Where does the star stop? (vs 9)


12) How do the Magi react to the star? (vs 10)


13) Where do the magi find the child and Mary? (vs 11)


14) What do the Magi do when they find the child? (vs 11)


15) What gifts do they give the child? (vs 11) (Note 30)


16) Why do they not go back to Herod? (vs 12)



The Escape to Egypt; Matthew 2:13-18

1) What happens after the Magi leave? (vs 13)


2) What does the angel tell Joseph? (vs 13)


3) What does Joseph do? (vs 14)


4) How long do they stay in Egypt? ( vs 15) (Note 27)


5) Why does Matthew say they went to Egypt? (vs 15) (Note 31)


6) What does Herod do when he realizes the Magi have left? (vs 16) (Note 32)


7) What does Matthew quote from the prophet Jeremiah? (vs 17-18)


The Return to Nazareth; Matthew 2:19-23

1) What happens after Herod dies? (vs 19)


2) What does the angel tell Joseph? (vs 20)

3) What does Joseph do? (vs 21)


4) Why does Joseph go to Nazareth? (vs 22-23) (Note 33)


John the Baptizer Prepares the Way for Jesus; Matthew 3:1-12

1) When does chapter 3 start? (vs 1)


2) Where is John preaching? (vs 1) (Note 34)


3) What is John preaching? (vs 2)


4) Who does Matthew tell us that John was? (vs 3)


5) What does Isaiah tell John’s job is? (vs 3)


6) How was John dressed? (vs 4)


7) What was John’s food? (vs 4)


8) Where do people come from to see John? (vs 5)


9) What did the people do? (vs 6)


10) What did John do to the people? (vs 6) (Note 35)


11) What does John call the Pharisees and Sadducees? (vs 7) (Note 36) (Note 37)


12) What question does John ask the Pharisees and Sadducees? (vs 7)


13) What does John tell them to do? (vs 8)


14) What does John tell them not to claim? (vs 9)


15 What does John tell them god could do? (vs 9)


16) What does John say is already happening? (vs 10)


17) What will happen to a tree that does not produce good fruit? (vs 10)

18) What does John say about his baptism? (vs 11)


19) How does John describe the one who is coming? (vs 11)


20) How does John compare himself to the one who is coming? (vs 11) (Note 38)


21) How will the one who is coming baptize them? (vs 11)


22) What is in the coming one’s hand? (vs 12) (Note 39)


23) What will happen to the chaff? (vs 12)


John Baptizes Jesus; Matthew 3:13-17

1) Where does Jesus come from? (vs 13)


2) Why does Jesus come? (vs 13)


3) What does John try to do and why? (vs 14)(remember John’s baptism)


4) What does John tell Jesus should be done? (vs 14)


5) How does Jesus answer John? (vs 15) (Note 40)


6) What happens after Jesus comes out of the water? (vs 16)


7) What does a voice from heaven say? (vs 17)


Satan Tempts Jesus; Matthew 4:1-11

1) Who leads Jesus into the desert? (vs 1) (Note 41)


2) Why is Jesus led into the desert? (vs 1) (Note 42)


3) How long was Jesus in the desert? (vs 2) (Note 43)


4) Who does Matthew tell us came to him? (vs 3)


5) What does Satan call into question about Jesus? (vs 3)


6) What does Satan tell Jesus to do? (vs 3)


7) How does Jesus answer Satan? (vs 4) (Note 44)


8) Where does the Devil take Jesus? (vs 5)


9) What does Satan call into question about Jesus? (vs 6)


10) What does Satan ask Jesus to do? (vs 6)


11) What justification does Satan give Jesus for doing this? (vs 6)


12) How does Jesus answer Satan? (vs 7)


13) Where does Satan take Jesus next? (vs 8)


14) What does Satan show Jesus? (vs 8)

15) What does Satan offer to Jesus? (vs 9)


16) What does Jesus have to do to receive all that Satan offers? (vs 9)


17) What does Jesus tell Satan to do? (vs 10)


18) How does Jesus answer Satan? (vs 10)


19) What does the Devil do? (vs 11)


20) Who takes care of Jesus? (vs 11)


Jesus Preaches at Galilee; Matthew 4:12-17

1) Why does Jesus return to Galilee? (vs 12) (Note 45)


2) Where was Jesus living when he heard John was in prison? (vs 13)


3) Where does Jesus go to live? (vs 13)


4) Why does Matthew say that Jesus moved to Capernaum? (vs 14 -15)


5)  What is Jesus called in the passage from Isaiah? (vs 16)


6) What does Jesus preach? (vs 17)


Four Fisherman Follow Jesus; Matthew 4:18-22

1) Who does Jesus see when walking by the Sea of Galilee? (vs 18) (Note 46)


2) What are Simon Peter and Andrew doing? ( vs 18)


3) What does Jesus say to them? (vs 19)


4) What do Peter and Andrew do? (vs 20)


5) Who does Jesus see next? (vs 21)


6) What are James and John doing? (vs 21)


7) What does Jesus do? (vs 21)


8) What do James and John do? (vs 22)


Jesus Preaches throughout Galilee; Matthew 4:23-25

1) Where does Jesus teach? (vs 23)


2) What is Jesus preaching? (vs 23)


3) What is Jesus doing besides preaching? (vs 23)


4) Where does news of Jesus spread? (vs 24)


5) Who are brought to Jesus? (vs 24)


6) What does Jesus do? (vs 24)


7) Where do the crowds who follow Jesus come from? (vs 25)


Jesus Give the Beatitudes; Matthew 5:1-12

1) What does Jesus do when he sees the crowds? (vs 1)


2) Who does Jesus teach? (vs 1-2)


3) Who does Jesus say is blessed? (vs 3)


4) What belongs to the poor in spirit? (vs 3)


5) What does Jesus say about those who mourn? (vs 4)


6) Who will inherit the earth? (vs 5) (Note 47)


7) Who will be filled? (vs 6)


8) What does Jesus say about the merciful? (vs 7)


9) Who will see God? (vs 8) (Note 48)


10) Who will be called sons of God? (vs 9)


11) What does Jesus say about those who are persecuted? (vs 10)


12) Jesus say we are blessed if we are treated how? (vs 11)


13) Why should we rejoice and be glad (two reasons)? (vs 12)


Jesus teaches about Salt and Light; Matthew 5:13-16

1) What does Jesus call us? (vs 13) (Note 49)


2) What does Jesus say about salt that has lost its saltiness? (vs 13)


3) What does Jesus call us? (vs 14)


4) What does Jesus say about a city on a hill? (vs 14)


5) What is the job of a light? (vs 15)


6) What does Jesus call us to do? (vs 16)


Jesus teaches about the Law; Matthew 5:17-20

1) What has Jesus not come to do? (vs 17)


2) What has Jesus come to do? (vs 17)


3) When will the Law cease to be? (vs 18)


4) who will be called least in the kingdom of heaven? (vs 19)


5) Who will be called great in the kingdom of heaven? (vs 19)


6) Whose righteousness must ours surpass? (vs 20)


Jesus Teaches about Anger: Matthew 5:21-26

1) What does Jesus say about murder? (vs 21)


2) What does Jesus say about anger? (vs 22)


3) Who is answerable to the Sanhedrin? (vs 22) (Note 50) (Note 51)


4) Who is in danger of the fires of hell? (vs 22) (Note 52)


5) What should you do if you remember someone has something against you? (vs 23-24)


6) Why should you settle things quickly? (vs 25)


7) When will they get out of prison? (26)


Jesus Teaches about Lust; Matthew 5:27-30

1) What does Jesus say they have heard? (vs 27)


2) What does Jesus about lusting after someone? (vs 28)


3) What if your eye causes you to sin? (vs 29)


4) What does Jesus say is better? (vs 29)


5) What if your right hand causes you to sin? (vs 30)


6) What does Jesus say is better? (vs 30)


Jesus Teaches about Divorce;  Matthew 5:31-32

1) What does Jesus remind them of from Deuteronomy? (vs 31)


2)  What does Jesus say is an acceptable reason for divorce? (vs 32)


3) What does Jesus say about a divorced woman who did not commit adultery? (vs 32)


4) What does Jesus say about a man who marries a divorced woman? (vs 32)


Jesus Teaches about Vows; Matthew 5:33-37

1) What were they told that they should not do?  (vs 33)


2) What were they told that they should do? (vs 33)


3) What does Jesus tell them that they should do? (vs 34) (Note 53)


4) What does Jesus call heaven? (vs 34)


5) What does Jesus call the earth? (vs 35)


6) What does Jesus call Jerusalem? (vs 35)


7) What does Jesus say about their head? (vs 36)


8) What should they do? (vs 37)


9) Where does Jesus say vows come from? (vs 37)


Jesus Teaches about Retaliation; Matthew 5:38-42

1) What does Jesus say that they have heard? (vs 38)


2) What does Jesus tell them not to do? (vs 39) (Note 54)


3) What should you do if someone strikes you? (vs 39)


4) What should you do if someone wants sue you? (vs 40) (Note 55)


5) What if someone forces you to go a mile? (vs 41) (Note 56)


6) What does Jesus say we should do for those who ask? (vs 42)


7) What should be done for those who want to borrow? (vs 42)


Jesus Teaches about Loving Enemies; Matthew 5:43-48

1) What does Jesus say that they have heard? (vs 43)


2) What does Jesus say we should do to our enemies? (vs 44)


3) What should be done to those who persecute you? (vs 44)


4) Why should you do these things? (vs 45)


5) what does God cause to happen? (vs 45)


6) What does Jesus say about loving those who love you? (vs 46)


7)  What does Jesus say about greeting brothers? (vs 47)


8) What does Jesus tell us to be? (vs 48) (Note 57)


Jesus Teaches about giving to the Needy; Matthew 6:1-4

1) What should we not do before men? (vs 1)


2) Where will your reward come from? (vs 1)


3) What are you not to do when you give to the needy and why? (vs 2)


4) What does Jesus say about our right and left hand? (vs 3)


5) How does Jesus say our giving should be? (vs 4)


6) Why should our giving be in secret? (vs 4)


Jesus teaches about Prayer; Matthew 6:5-15

1) How do the hypocrites pray? (vs 5)


2) What have the hypocrites already received? (vs 5)


3) Where does Jesus say you should go to pray? (vs 6)


4) How does Matthew describe God? (vs 6)


5) What will God do if you do this? (vs 6)


6) What are you not to do when you pray? (vs 7)


7) Why does Jesus say the Pagans babble? (vs 7)


8) Why does Jesus say we do not need many words? (vs 8)


9) What are we to call God when we pray? (vs 9)


10) Where is God? (vs 9)


11) What is God’s name? (vs 9)


12) What should we pray comes? (vs 10)


13) Whose will should we pray to be done? (vs 10)


14) Where should we pray that God’s will be done and how? (vs 10)


15) What should we ask God to give us? (vs 11)


16) How should we ask God to forgive us? (vs 12)


17) What should we pray about temptation? (vs 13)


18) Who should we ask to be delivered from? (vs 13)


19) What does Jesus say will happen if we forgive? (vs 14)

20)  What does Jesus say will happen if we do not forgive? (vs 15)


Jesus Teaches about Fasting; Matthew 6:16-18

1) What should you not do when you fast? (vs 16)


2) What does Jesus say the hypocrites do? (vs 16)


3) What have the hypocrites received? (vs 16)


4) What should you do when you fast? (vs 17)


5) Why does Jesus say we should do this? (vs 18)


6) What will God do? (vs 18)


Jesus Teaches about Money; Matthew 6:19-24

1) What should we not store up? (vs 19)


2) Why should we not store up treasures on earth? (vs 19)


3) Where should we store up treasures? (vs 20)


4) What cannot touch our treasures there? (vs 20)


5) Why should we store our treasures there? (vs 21)


6) What does Jesus say about the eye? (vs 22)


7) What does Jesus say about good eyes? (vs 22)


8) What does Jesus say about bad eyes? (vs 23)


9) What do you think Jesus means by these two statements?


10) What does Jesus say leads to great darkness? (vs 23)


11) What does Jesus say about serving? (vs 24)


12) What does Jesus say you cannot serve? (vs 24) (Note 58)

Jesus Teaches about Worry; Matthew 6:25-34

1) What does Jesus tell us not to worry about? (vs 25)


2)  What does Jesus say about life? (vs 25)


3) What does Jesus say about the body? (vs 25)


4) What example does Jesus use? (vs 26)


5) Who cares for the birds? (vs 26) (Note 59)


6) What question does Jesus ask? (vs 26)


7) what does Jesus say worrying will not do? (vs 27)


8) What does Jesus ask them about clothes? (vs 28)


9) What does Jesus use as an example? (vs 28)


10) What does Jesus say about Solomon? (vs 29)


11) What does Jesus ask them? (vs 30)


12) What does Jesus tell them not to worry about? (vs 31)


13) What does Jesus say about the pagans? (vs 32) (Note 60) (Note 61)


14) What does Jesus tell us our Heavenly Father knows? (vs 32)


15) What are we to seek first? (vs 33)


16) What will happen if we seek God’s kingdom and His righteousness first? (vs 33)


17) What does Jesus tell us not to do? (vs 34)


18) What will tomorrow bring? (vs 34) (Note 62)


19) What does Jesus say about each day? (vs 34)

Jesus Teaches About Criticizing Others; Matthew 7:1-6

1) What does Jesus tell us not to do? (vs 1)


2) What will happen if we judge others? (vs 1)


3) How does Jesus say that you will be judged? (vs 2)


4) how will we be measured? (vs 2)


5) What question does Jesus ask them and what does he mean? (vs 3-4)


6) What does Jesus say you must do first? (vs 5)


7) What does Jesus say about dogs? (vs 6) (Note 63)


8) What does Jesus say about pigs? (vs 6)


Asking, Seeking, and Knocking; Matthew 7:7-12

1) What does Jesus say will happen if we ask? (vs 7) (Note 64)


2) What will happen if we seek? (vs 7)


3) What will happen if we knock? (vs 7)


4) What does Jesus say is for everyone who ask, seeks or knocks? (vs 8)


5) What is the first question that Jesus asks them? (vs 9)


6) What is the second question that Jesus asks them? (vs 10)


7) What does Jesus say that people are? (vs 11)


8) What does Jesus say our Father will do? (vs 11)


9) What does Jesus tell us to do in everything? (vs 12)


10) Why does Jesus say we should do this? (vs 12)



The Way to Heaven; Matthew 7:13-14

1) What gate should we enter through? (vs 13)


2) What does Jesus say about the gate and the road to destruction? (vs 13)


3) How many use the wide gate? (vs 13)


4) What does Jesus say about the gate and the road to life? (vs 14)


5) How many find the narrow gate? (vs 14)


Fruit in People’s lives; Matthew 7:15-20

1) What does Jesus tell them to watch out for? (vs 15)


2) How does Jesus say they are dressed? (vs 15)


3) What does Jesus say they really are? (vs 15)


4) How does Jesus say we recognize them? (vs 16)


5) What examples does Jesus use? (vs 16)


6) What does Jesus say about a good tree? (vs 17)


7) What does Jesus say about a bad tree? (vs 17)


8) What can a good tree not do? (vs 18)


9) What can a bad tree not do? (vs 18)


10) What happens to a tree that does not bear good fruit? (vs 19)


11) How do you recognize people? (vs 20)


Building a House on the rock and the Sand; Matthew 7:21-28

1) What does Jesus say about addressing him as Lord Lord? (vs 21)


2) Who will enter the Kingdom of heaven? (vs 21)


3) What does Jesus say that people will say to him? (vs 22)


4) What does Jesus say that he will say to them? (vs 23)


5) What does Jesus say those who hear his words and put them into practice are? (vs 24)


6) What does Jesus say about the wise man’s house? (vs 25)


7) What does Jesus say about those who do not put his words into practice? (vs 26)


8) What does Jesus say about the foolish man’s house? (vs 27)


9) What does the crowd think of Jesus’ teachings? (vs 28)


10) Why were the crowd amazed at Jesus’ teachings? (vs 29)


11) What does Matthew say about the teachers of the Law? (vs 29)



Jesus heals a Man with Leprosy; Matthew 8:1-4

1) Where was Jesus at? (vs 1)


2) Who comes and kneels before Jesus? (vs 2)


3) What does the man say to Jesus? (vs 2)


4) What does Jesus do? (vs 3)


5) What does Jesus say? (vs 3)


6) What happens to the man? (vs 3)


7) What does Jesus tell him not to do? (vs 4)


8) What does Jesus tell him to do? (vs 4)


A Centurion Demonstrates Faith; Matthew 8:5-13

1) Who comes to Jesus asking for help? (vs 5) (Note 65)


2) What does the centurion want from Jesus? (vs 6) (Note 66)


3) What does Jesus tell the centurion? (vs 7)


4) What does the centurion say to Jesus? (vs 8)


5) What is the centurion’s reason for saying this? (vs 9)


6) What is Jesus’ response to what the centurion says? (vs 10)


7) What does Jesus say to the people? (vs 10)


8) What does Jesus say about the feast? (vs 11) (Note 67)


9) What will happen to the subjects of the Kingdom? (vs 12)


10) What does Jesus say to the centurion? (vs 13)


11) What happens to the centurion’s servant? (vs 13)

Jesus Heals Peter’s Mother-in-Law; Matthew 8:14-17

1) What does Jesus find at Peter’s house? (vs 14)


2) What does Jesus do? (vs 15)


3) What happens to Peter’s Mother-in-Law? (vs 15)


4) What happens to Peter’s Mother-in-Law? (vs 15)


5) What people were brought to Jesus? (vs 16)


6) What does Jesus do? (vs 16)


7) What does Jesus do for the sick? (vs 16)


8) Why does Matthew tell us that Jesus did this? (vs 17)


Jesus Teaches About the Cost of Following Him; Matthew 8:18-22

1) What does Jesus do when he sees the crowd? (vs 18)


2) What does a teacher of the Law say to Jesus? (vs 19)


3) How does Jesus answer him? (vs 20)


4) What does another disciple say to Jesus? (vs 21)


5) How does Jesus answer this disciple? (vs 22) (Note 68)


Jesus Calms the Storm; Matthew 8:23-27

1) What do Jesus and His Disciples do? (vs 23)


2) What happens? (vs 24)


3) What is Jesus doing? (vs 24)


4) What do the disciples do and say? (vs 25)


5) How does Jesus answer them? (vs 26)


6) What does Jesus do? (vs 26)


7) What happens to the storm? (vs 26)


8) How do the disciples respond? (vs 27)


9) What do the disciples say? (vs 27)


Jesus Sends the Demons into a Herd of Pigs; Matthew 8:28-34

1) Where does Jesus land? (vs 28) (Note 69)


2) Who came out to meet Jesus? (vs 28) (Note 70)


3) What are we told about the two men? (vs 28)


4) What is the first question they ask Jesus? (vs 29) (Note 71)(Note 72)


5)  What is the second question they ask Jesus? (vs 29) (Note 73)


6) What was feeding close by? (vs 30)


7) What do the demons ask Jesus to do? (vs 31) (Note 73)


8) how does Jesus answer them? (vs 32)


9) What happens to the herd of pigs? (vs 32)


10) What did those tending the pigs do? (vs 33)


11) Who comes out to meet Jesus? (vs 34)


12) What do the town’s people ask Jesus to do? (vs 34)


Jesus Heals a Paralyzed Man; Matthew 9:1-8

1) What does Jesus do? (vs 1) (Note 74)


2) Who is brought to Jesus and how? (vs 2)


3) What does Jesus say to the paralyzed man and why? (vs 2)


4) What do the teachers of the law say about Jesus? (vs 3) (Note 75)


5) What does Jesus know about the religious leaders? (vs 4)


6) What is the first Question Jesus asks them? (vs 4)


7)  What is the second question that Jesus asks them? (vs 5) (Note 76)


8) Why does Jesus say that he has healed this man the way he has? (vs 6)


9) What does Jesus say to the paralyzed man? (vs 6)


10) What does the man do? (vs 7)


11) What does the crowd do? (vs 8)



Jesus Eats with sinners at Matthews House; Matthew 9:9-13

1) Who is Matthew? (vs 9)


2) What does Jesus say to Matthew? (vs 9)


3) What does Matthew do? (vs 9) (Note 77)


4) Who ate dinner with Jesus? (vs 10)


5) What do the Pharisees ask Jesus’ disciples? (vs11)


6) How does Jesus answer the Pharisees? (vs 12)


7) What does Jesus tell them to do? (vs 13) (Note 78)


8) Why does Jesus tell them that he has come? ( vs 13)


Jesus Asked about Fasting; Matthew 9:14-17

1) Who comes to Jesus? (vs 14)


2) What do john’s disciples ask Jesus? (vs 14)


3) What does Jesus say to them? (vs 15)


4) What does Jesus tell them will happen? (vs 15)


5) What does Jesus tell them about patches? (vs 16)


6) What does Jesus say about old wineskins? (vs 17)


7) What does Jesus say about new wineskins? (vs 17)


8) What do you think Jesus means by these two parables?


Jesus Heals a Bleeding Woman and Restores a Girl to Life; Matthew 9:18-26

1) Who comes to Jesus? (vs 18) (Note 79)


2) What does this man do? (vs 18)


3) What does the Man tell Jesus? (vs 18)


4) What does the man ask Jesus? (vs 18)


5) What does Jesus do? (vs 19)


6) What are we told about this woman? (vs 20)


7) What does the woman do? (vs 20)


8) What does the woman say to herself? (vs 21)


9) What does Jesus do and say? (vs 22)


10 What happens to the woman? (vs 22)


11) What does Jesus find in the ruler’s house? (vs 23) (Note 80)


12) What does Jesus say to the crowd? (vs 24)


13) How does the crowd respond to Jesus? (vs 24)


14 What happens to the crowd? (vs 25)


15) What does Jesus do and what happens to the girl? (vs 25)


16) What happens? (vs 26)


Jesus Heals the Blind and Mute; Matthew 9:27-34

1) Who follows Jesus? (vs 27)


2) What do the two men do? (vs 27)


3) Where do the men come to Jesus? (vs 28)


4) What does Jesus ask them? (vs 28)


5) How do they answer Jesus? (vs 28)


6) What does Jesus do? (vs 29)


7) What does Jesus say? (vs 29)


8) What happens to the men? (vs 30)


9) What does Jesus  say to them? (vs 30)


10) What do the men do? (vs 31)


11) Who is brought to Jesus? (vs 32)


12) What happens when the demon is driven out of the man? (vs 33)

13) How does the crowd respond? (vs 33)


14) What do the Pharisees say? (vs 34)


Jesus Urges the disciples to Pray for Workers;  Matthew 9:35-38

1) Where does Jesus go? (vs 35)


2) What does Jesus do? (vs 35)


3) How does Jesus feel about the crowds and why? (vs 36)


4) How does Matthew describe the people? (vs 36)


5) What does Jesus say to the Disciples? (vs 37)


6) What does Jesus tell the Disciples to ask for? (vs 38)


Jesus sends Out the Twelve Disciples;  Matthew 10:1-16

1) Why does Jesus call the disciples to him? (vs 1)


2)  Which disciple is listed first? (vs 2)


3) How is Andrew described? (vs 2)


4) How is James described? (vs 2)


5) How is John described? (vs 2)


6) How does Matthew describe himself? (vs 3)


7) How is James described? (vs 3)


8) How is Simon described? (vs 4) (Note: in the Greek we are told that Simon is from the city of Cana in Galilee. There is no mention in the Greek here that he is a zealot)



9) How is Judas Iscariot described? (vs 4)


10) What does Jesus do with the twelve? (vs 5)


11) Where does Jesus tell them not to go? (vs 5)


12)Who does he tell them to go to? (vs 6)


13) What message are they to preach? (vs 7)


14) What does Jesus tell them they are to do? (vs 8)


15) How are they to give? (vs 8)


16) What are they to not to take along with them in their belts? (vs 9)


17) What else are they not to take with them? (vs 10)

18) Why does Jesus tell them this? (vs 10)


19) What are they to do when they enter a town? (11)


20) What are they to do as they enter the house? (vs 12)


21) What are they to do if the house is deserving? (vs 13)


22) What will happen if the house is underserving? (vs 13)


23) What are they to do if they are not welcomed or listened to? (vs 14)


24) What does Jesus say about the towns that will not listen? (vs 15)


25) How does Jesus tell them he is sending them out? (vs 16)


26) How does Jesus tell them that they should be? (vs 16)

Jesus Prepares the Disciples for Persecution; Matthew 10:17-32

1) What does Jesus tell the disciples to do? (vs 17)


2) Why does Jesus tell the disciples to be on guard? (vs 17)


3) Who does Jesus say they will be brought before? (vs 18)


4) Why will they be brought before these people? (vs 18)


5) What does Jesus tell them not to do? (vs 19)


6) What will happen when they are arrested? (vs 19)


7) Who does Jesus say will speak through them? ( 20)


8) What does Jesus say about families? (vs 21)


9) How does Jesus say men will fell about them because of Him? (VS 22)


10) Who will be saved? (vs 22)


11) What should they do when persecuted? (vs 23)


12) What does Jesus say they will not finish doing? (vs 23) (Note 81)


13) What does Jesus say about students and servants? (vs 24)


14) What should the servant and the student be like? (vs 25)


15) What does Jesus say will be said about them? (vs 25) (Note 82)


16) What does Jesus tell them not to do? (vs 26)


17) Why does Jesus say that they should not be afraid? (vs 26)

18) What does Jesus tell them they should do? (vs 27)


19) Who should they not be afraid of? (vs 28)


20) Who does Jesus say that they should be afraid of? (vs 28)


21) What does Jesus say about sparrows? (vs 29)



22) What does Jesus say about the hairs of our heads? (vs 30)


23) What does Jesus tell them not to do and why? (vs 31)


24) What does Jesus say about acknowledgement? (vs 32) (Note 83)


25) What does Jesus say about disowning? (vs 33) (Note 84)


26) What does Jesus say he did not come to bring? (vs 34)

27) What does Jesus say he came to bring? (vs 34)


28) What does Jesus say about family relationships? (vs 35-36)


29) Who does Jesus say is not worthy of him? (vs 37)


30) What does Jesus say about a cross and what does he mean? (vs 38)


31) What does Jesus say about life and what does he mean? (vs 39)


32) What happens to those who receive us? (vs 40)


33) What happens to those who receive Jesus? (vs 40)


34) What does Jesus say about rewards? (vs 41)


35) What does Jesus say about anyone who helps his disciples? (vs 42)

Jesus Eases John’s Doubts; Matthew 11:1-19

1) Where does Jesus go after instructing the disciples? (vs 1)


2) Where is John the Baptizer at? (vs 2)


3) What does John send his disciples to do? (vs 3) (Note 86)


4) What does Jesus tell john’s disciples? (vs 4)


5) What are John’s disciples to tell John? (vs 5)


6) Who does Jesus say is blessed? (vs 6)


7) Who does Jesus speak to and about what? (vs 7)


8) What does Jesus ask the crowd? (vs 7-8)


9) What does Jesus say John was not? (vs 8)


10) What does Jesus tell them that John was? (vs 9)


11) What does Jesus tell the crowd that John (from Malachi)? (vs 10)


12) How does Jesus compare John to other men? (vs 11)


13) How do those in the Kingdom of Heaven compare to John? (vs 11)


14) What does Jesus say has been happening since the days of John the Baptizer? (vs 12) (Note 87)


15) What have the Law and the prophets done before John? (vs 13) (Note 88)


16) Who does Jesus say that John is? (vs 14) (Note 89)


17) What does Jesus say they must be willing to do? (vs 14)


18) What does Jesus tell them? (vs 15)


19) What question does Jesus ask? (vs 16)


20) What does Jesus say they are like? (vs 17)


21) What does Jesus say that they sang? (vs 17)


22) What do they say about John? (vs 18)


23) What do they call John? (vs 18)


24) What do they say about Jesus? (vs 19)


25) How is wisdom proved right? (vs 19)


Jesus Promises Rest for the Soul; Matthew 11:20-20

1) What does Jesus do and why? (vs 20)


2) Who does Jesus proclaim woe to? (vs 21) (Note 90)


3) What would have happened in Tyre and Sidon if the same miracles had been done there? (vs 21) (Note 91)


4) What will happen on the day of judgement? (vs 22)


5) What does Jesus say about Capernaum? (vs 23) (Note 92)


6) What does Jesus say about Sodom? (vs 23)


7) What does Jesus say about the day of Judgement? (vs 24)


8) How does Jesus address God? (vs 25)


9) Why does Jesus praise God? (vs 25)

10) Why does Jesus say God has done this? (vs 26)


11) What does Jesus say has been given over to him and by whom? (vs 27)


12) Who knows the Son? (vs 27)


13) Who knows the Father? (vs 27)


14) Who does Jesus tell to come to him? (vs 28) (Note 93)


15) What are they to take upon themselves? (vs 29) (Note 94)


16) How does Jesus describe himself? (vs 29) (Note 95)


17) What does Jesus tell them that they will find? (vs 29) (Note 96)


18)  what does Jesus say about his yoke and burden? (vs 30)

The Disciples Pick Wheat on the Sabbath; Matthew 12:1-8

1) What do Jesus disciples do and why? (vs 1)


2) What day of the week is it? (vs 1)


3) Who saw them doing this? (vs 2)


4) What do the Pharisees say to Jesus? (vs 2)


5) Who does Jesus remind them of? (vs 3)


6) What did David do? (vs 4)


7) What Jesus remind them about the priests?  (vs 5)


8) Who does Jesus tell them is here? (vs 6)


9) What words of the prophet Hosea does Jesus remind them of? (vs 7)

Jesus Heals a Man’s Hand on the Sabbath; Matthew 12:9-14

1) Where does Jesus go? (vs 9)


2) Who was there? (vs 10)


3)  What do the religious leaders ask Jesus? (vs 10)


4) What question does Jesus ask them? (vs 11)


5) What statement does Jesus make about a man? (vs 12)


6) What does Jesus say about the Sabbath? (vs 12)


7) What does Jesus say to the man? (vs 13)


8) What does the man do and what happens? (vs 13)


9) What do the Pharisees do? (vs 14)

Large Crowds follow Jesus; Matthew 12:15-21

1) Why does Jesus withdraw from that place? (vs 15)


2) What does Jesus do to those who follow him? (vs 15)


3) What does Jesus tell them? (vs 16)


4) Why does Jesus say this to them? (vs 17)


5) What does God say about Jesus in Isaiah? (vs 18)


6) What does God say He will do to Jesus? (vs 18)


7) What is Jesus going to do? (vs 18)


8) What does God say that Jesus will not do? (vs 19-20)


9) How long will Jesus do this? (vs 20)

10) Where will the nations put their hope? (vs 21)


Religious Leaders Accuse Jesus of Being under Satan’s Power; Matthew 12:22-37

1)Who is brought to Jesus? (vs 22)


2) What does Jesus do to the man? (vs 22)


3) What do all the people ask? (vs 23)


4) What do the Pharisees say? (vs 24) (Note 82)


5) What does Jesus say to them and why? (vs 25)


6) What does Jesus say about what they are thinking? (vs 26)


7) What does Jesus ask them? (vs 27)


8) what does Jesus say about the Kingdom of God? (vs 28)

9) What does Jesus say about a strong man and what does he mean? (vs 29)


10) What does Jesus say about those who are not with him? (vs 30)


11) What will be forgiven? (vs 31)


12) What will not be forgiven? (vs 31)


13) What does Jesus say about speaking against him? (vs 32)


14) What does Jesus say about speaking against the Holy Spirit? (vs 32)


15) What does Jesus say about a tree and its fruit? (vs 33)


18) What does Jesus call the religious leaders? (vs 34)


19) Why can the religious leaders say nothing good? (vs 34)

20) Where does Jesus the words of the mouth come from? (vs 34)


21) What does Jesus say about the good man? (vs 35)


22) What does Jesus say about the evil man? (vs 35)


23) What will men have to give an account of and when? (vs 36)


24) How will you be acquitted or condemned? (vs 37)


The Religious Leaders Ask Jesus for a Miracle;  Matthew 12:38-45

1) What do the religious leaders ask Jesus to do? (vs 38)


2) What does Jesus say to them? (vs 39)


3) What does he say that they will be given? (vs 39)


4) What does Jesus say is similar about him and Jonah? (vs 40)

5) What will the men of Nineveh do and when? (vs 41)


6) Why will the men of Nineveh condemn that generation? (vs 41)


7) Who else does Jesus say will condemn that generation? (vs 42)


8) Why does Jesus say she will condemn them? (vs 42)


9) How does Jesus compare himself to Solomon? (vs 42)


10) What does Jesus say about an evil spirit? (43)


11) What happens when the evil spirit returns? (vs 44)


12) What does the evil spirit take back with it and what is the result of this? (vs 45)


13) Why does Jesus tell this story?  (vs 45)


Jesus Describes His True Family; Matthew 12:46-50

1) Who comes to see Jesus? (vs 46-47)


2) Why do Jesus’ mother and brothers come? (vs 46-47)


3) How does Jesus respond to being told? (vs 48)


4) What does Jesus do and say about his disciples? (vs 49)


5) Who does Jesus say is his family? (vs 50)


Jesus Tells the Parable of the Four Soils; Matthew 13:1-9

1) Where does Jesus go? (vs 1)


2) Why does Jesus get into a boat? (vs 2)


3) How does Jesus teach them? (vs 3)


4) What does the farmer do? (vs 3)


5) What happens to the seed that lands on the path? (vs 4)


6) What happens to the seed that falls on rocky ground at first? (vs 5)


7) What happens when the sun comes out? (vs 6)


8) What happens to the seed which falls among the thorns? (vs 7)


9) What happens to the seed that falls on good ground? (vs 8)


10) How big was the crop? (vs 8)


11) What does Jesus tell them? (vs 9)



Jesus Explains the parable of the Four soils; Matthew 13:10-23

1) What do the disciples ask Jesus? (vs 10)


2) How does Jesus answer them? (vs 11)


3) Who does Jesus say will be given more? (vs 12)


4) Who will have things taken from him? (vs 12)


5) Why does Jesus say he speaks to the people in parables? (vs 13)


6) What have their actions fulfilled? (vs 14)


7) What does Isaiah say about their hearing? (vs 14)


8) What does Isaiah say about their seeing? (vs 14)


9) What does Isaiah say about their hearts? (vs 15)

10) What does Isaiah say about the ears? (vs 15)


11) What does Isaiah say about their eyes? (vs 15)


12) What might happen to them if they could hear and see? (vs 15)


13) What would God do if they turn (vs 15)


14) What does Jesus say about the disciple’s ears and eyes? (vs 16)


15) What does Jesus tell them about what they hear and see? (vs 17)


16) What does Jesus tell the disciples to do? (vs 18)


17) Who is the seed sown along the path? (vs 19)


18) Who is the seed sown on rocky ground? (vs 20-21)

19) Who is the seed that fell among the thorns? (vs 22)


20) Who is the seed that fell in good ground? (vs 23)


21) how much will be produced? (vs 23)


Jesus tells the Parable of the Weeds; Matthew 13:24-30

1)  What is the kingdom of heaven like? (vs 24)


2) What does the man’s enemy do? (vs 25)


3) What happens when the wheat sprouts? (vs 26)


4) What do the man’s servants ask him? (vs 27)


5) How does the man answer his servants? (vs 28)


6) What do the servants ask? (vs 28)

7) Why does the man tell them no? (vs 29)


8) What does the man tell them to do? (vs 30)


9) What does he say he will tell the harvesters? (vs 30)


The Parable of the Mustard Seed; Matthew 13:31-32

1) What is the kingdom of heaven like? (vs 31)


2) What does the seed become? (vs 32)


The Parable of the Yeast; Matthew 13:33-36

1) What is the kingdom of heaven like? (vs 33)


2) How does Matthew tell us Jesus spoke to the crowds? (vs 34)


3) Why does Matthew tell us that Jesus did this? (vs 35)


4) Why does Jesus say he speaks In parables? (vs 35)


Jesus Explains the Parable of the Weeds; Matthew 13:36-43

1) What does Jesus do? (vs 36)


2) What do the disciples ask Jesus? (vs 36)


3) Who is the one who sowed the good seed? (37)


4) What does the field represent? (vs 38)


5) What do the good seeds stand for? (vs 38)


6) What do the weeds stand for? (vs 38)


7) Who is the enemy? (vs 39)


8) What does the harvest represent? (vs 39)

9) Who are the harvesters? (vs 39)


10) What happens to the weeds ? (vs 40)


11) Who will Jesus send out? (vs 41)


12) What will the angels do? (vs 41)


13) Where will the angels throw the weeds? (vs 42)


14) What will happen to the righteous? (vs 43)


15) How does Jesus end this parable? (vs 43)


Parables about the Kingdom of Heaven; Matthew 13:44-52

1) what does Jesus say the kingdom of heaven is like? (vs 44)


2) What does the man do when he finds it? (vs 44)

3) What does Jesus say the kingdom of heaven is like? (vs 45)


4) What does the merchant do when he finds a pearl of great value? (vs 46)


5) What does Jesus say the kingdom of heaven is like? (vs 47)


6) What do the fishermen do? (vs 48)


7) What does Jesus say will be like this? (vs 49)


8) What will the angels do with the wicked? (vs 50)


9) What does Jesus ask the disciples? (vs 51)


10) How do the disciples reply? (vs 51)


11) What does Jesus call them? (vs 52)

12) What does Jesus say about those who have been instructed? (vs 52)


The People of Nazareth Refuse to Believe; Matthew 13:53-58

1) Where does Jesus go next? (vs 53-54)


2) Where does Jesus teach? (vs 54)


3) How do the people feel about his teaching and healings? (vs 54)


4) What question do they ask about Jesus teaching? (vs 54)


5) What questions do they ask about Jesus family? (vs 55-56)


6) What do they ask about Jesus? (vs 56)


7) How do they react to Him? (vs 56)


8) What does Jesus say to them? (vs 57)

9) What does Jesus stop doing there? (vs 58)


Herod Kills John the Baptist; Matthew 14:1-12

1)Who hears about Jesus? (vs 1) (Note 97)


2)  What does Herod say to his attendants? (vs 2)


3) Why had Herod arrested and put john to death? (vs 3)


4) What did John tell Herod? (vs 4)


5) What did Herod want to do to John? (vs 5)


6) Why did Herod not kill John? (vs 5)


7) What happens on Herod’s birthday? (vs 6)


8) What does Herod offer the daughter of Herodias? (vs 7)

9) What does she ask for and why? (vs 8)


10) How does Herod feel about this? (vs 9)


11) Why does Herod grant her request? (vs 9)


12) What does Herod have done? (vs 10)


13) What is done with John’s head? (vs 11)


14) What does the girl do with John’s head? (vs 11)


15) What do John’s disciples do? (vs 12)


Jesus Feeds Five Thousand; Matthew 14:13-21

1) What does Jesus do when he hears of John’s death? (vs 13)


2) What do the People do? (vs 13)

3) What does Jesus see when he lands? (vs 14)


4) What does Jesus do for the people and why? (vs 14)


5) When do the disciples approach Jesus? (vs 15)


6) What do the disciples ask Jesus to do and Why? (vs 15)


7) What does Jesus say to the disciples? (vs 16)


8) How do the disciples answer Jesus? (vs 17)


9) What do Jesus tell the disciples to do? (vs 18)


10) What does Jesus tell the people to do? (vs 19)


11) What does Jesus do to the bread and fish? (vs 19)

12) What does Jesus have the disciples do? (vs 19)


13) What happened to the people? (vs 20)


14) what do the disciples collect after the people eat? (vs 20)


15) What was the number who ate? (vs 21)


Jesus Walks on Water; Matthew 14:22-33

1) What does Jesus make the disciples do? (vs 22)


2) What does Jesus do? (vs 23)


3) How long does Jesus stay on the mountain? (vs 23)


4) Where was the boat and what was happening to it? (vs 24)


5) When does Jesus go out to them? (vs 25) (Note 98)

6) How does Jesus go out to them? (vs 25)


7) What did the disciples think when the saw him? (vs 26)


8)  What does Jesus say to the disciples? (vs 27)


9) What does Peter say to Jesus? (vs 28)


10) How does Jesus answer Peter? (vs 29)


11) What does Peter do? (vs 29)


12) Why does Peter began to sink? (vs 30)


13) What does Peter ask Jesus? (vs 30)


14) What does Jesus do? (vs 31)

15) What does Jesus say to Peter? (vs 31)


16) What happens when they get in the boat? (vs 32)


17) What do those in the boat do and say? (vs 33)


Jesus Heals All Who Touch Him; Matthew 14:34-36

1) Where do they land? (vs 34)


2) What happens when they recognize Jesus? (vs 35)


3) What do the people ask Jesus? (vs 36)


4) What happens to all who touch Jesus? (vs 36)


Jesus Teaches About Inner Purity: Matthew 15:1-20

1) Who comes to Jesus and from where? (vs 1)


2) What do the Pharisees ask Jesus? (vs 2) (Note 99)


3) What does Jesus ask them? (vs 3)


4) What commands does Jesus remind them of? (vs 4)


5) What oral tradition does Jesus remind them of? (vs 5) (Note 100)


6) What does Jesus say they are doing for the sake of their tradition? (vs 6)


7) What does Jesus call them? (vs 7)


8) What does Jesus tell them about honoring God? (vs 8)


9) What does Jesus say about their worship? (vs 9)


10) What does Jesus say about their teachings? (vs 9)

11) What does Jesus say to the crowd? (vs 10)


12) What does Jesus say about what goes into a man’s mouth? (vs 11)


13) What makes a man unclean? (vs 11)


14) What do the disciples ask Jesus? (vs 12)


15) How does Jesus answer them? (vs 13)


16) What does Jesus call them? (vs 14)


17) What does Jesus tell them about a blind man? (vs 14)


18) What does Peter ask Jesus? (vs 15)


19) What does Jesus ask Peter? (vs 16)

20) What does Jesus say about what enters the mouth? (vs 17)


21) What does Jesus say about what comes out of the mouth? (18)


22) What does Jesus say comes out of the heart? (vs 19)


23) What does Jesus say these things make a person? (vs 20)


24) What does Jesus say about unwashed hands? (vs 20)


Jesus Casts Out a Demon from a Girl; Matthew 15:21-28

1) Where does Jesus go? (vs 21)(Note 101)


2) Who comes to him? (vs 22)


3) What does the woman call to Jesus? (vs 22)


4) What does the woman ask Jesus? (vs 22)

5) How does Jesus answer her? (vs 23)


6) What do the disciples do and why? (vs 23)


7) How does Jesus answer the disciples? (vs 24)


8) What does the woman do? (vs 25)


9) How does Jesus answer her? (vs 26)


10) How does the woman answer Jesus? (vs 27)


11) What does Jesus say to the woman? (vs 28)


12) What happens to the woman’s daughter? (vs 28)



The Crowd Marvels at Jesus’ Healings; Matthew 15:29-31

1) Where does Jesus go next? (vs 29)


2) What does Jesus do? (vs 29)


3) How are the crowds described? (vs 30)


4) Who did the crowd bring to Jesus? (vs 30)


5) How did the people react to Jesus healing? (vs 31)


Jesus Feeds Four Thousand; Matthew 15:32-39

1) What does Jesus do? (vs 32) (Note 103)


2) What does Jesus say to the disciples? (vs 32)


3) How long have the people been there? (vs 32)


4) What does Jesus not want to do and why? (vs 32)


5) How do the disciples answer Jesus? (vs 33)


6) What does Jesus ask them? (vs 34)


7) How do the disciples answer Jesus? (vs 34)


8) What does Jesus tell the crowd to do? (vs 35)


9) What does Jesus do with the loaves and the fish? (vs 36)


10) What do the disciples do with the food? (vs 36)


11) What did the people do? (vs 37)


12) What is left over? (vs 37)

13) What was the number of those who ate? (vs 38)


14) What does Jesus do? (vs 39) (Note 104)


Religious Leaders Ask for a Sign in the Sky; Mathew 16:1-4

1) Why do the Pharisees and Sadducees come to Jesus? (vs 1) (Note 36-37)


2) What does Jesus say they know from the evening sky? (vs 2)


3) What does Jesus say they know from the morning sky? (vs 3)


4) What does Jesus say they do not know how to interpret? (vs 3)


5) What does Jesus call them and what does he mean? (vs 4)


6) What sign does Jesus say will be given to them? (vs 4)


7) What does Jesus do? (vs 4)

Jesus Warns Against Wrong Teaching; Matthew 16:5-12

1) What did the disciples forget to take? (vs 5)


2) What does Jesus warn them about? (vs 6)


3) What did the disciples think Jesus was talking about? (vs 7)


4) What does Jesus say to them? (vs 8)


5) What does Jesus ask them? (vs 9)


6) What does Jesus remind them of? (vs 9-10)


7) What does Jesus ask them? (vs 11)


8) What does Jesus say to them again? (vs 11)


9) What do the disciples finally understand? (vs 12)

Peter Says Jesus is the Messiah; Matthew 16:13-20

1) Where does Jesus go? (vs 13) (Note 105)


2) What does Jesus ask his disciples? (vs 13) (Note 106)


3) What is the first name they mention? (vs 14)


4) Who is the second name they mention? (vs 14) (Note 107)


5) Who do others say that he is? (vs 14)


6) What does Jesus ask the disciples? (vs 15)


7) How does Peter answer Jesus? (vs 16)


8) What does Jesus say to Peter? (vs 17)


9) What does Jesus call Peter? ( vs18) (Note 108)

10) What does Jesus say he will build on Peter? (vs 18)


11) What will not overcome the church? (vs 18)


12) What does Jesus say he will give to Peter? (vs 19)


13) What authority does Jesus give to Peter? (vs 19)


14) What does Jesus warn the disciples not to do? (vs 20)


Jesus Predicts His Death the First Time; Matthew 16:21-28

1) What does Jesus begin to explain to the disciples? (vs 21)


2) What does Peter do? (vs 22)


3) What does Jesus call Peter? (23)


4) Why does Jesus call Peter a stumbling block? (vs 23)

5) What does Jesus tell his disciples they must do to follow him? (vs 24)


6) What does Jesus say about their life? (vs 25)


7) What does Jesus say about a person’s soul? (vs 26)


8) How will the Son of Man come? (vs 27)


9) What will the son of Man do when he comes? (vs 27)


10) What does Jesus say about some of those standing there? (vs 28)


Jesus is Transfigured on the Mountain; Matthew 17:1-13

1) When and where does Jesus take Peter, James and John? (vs 1) (Note 109)


2) What happens to Jesus? (vs 2) (Note 110)


3) Who appears with Jesus and what are they doing? (vs 3) (Note 111)

4) What does Peter offer to do? (vs 4 (Note 112)


5) What happens as Peter is speaking? (vs 5)


6) What does the voice from the cloud say? (vs 5)


7) What do the disciples do when they hear the voice? (vs 6)


8) What does Jesus do and say? (vs 7)


9) What happens when the disciple look up? (vs 8)


10) What does Jesus tell them while coming down the mountain? (vs 9)


11) What question do the disciples ask Jesus? (vs 10)


12) What does Jesus say Elijah will do? (vs 11)

13) What does Jesus say Elijah has already done? (vs 12)


14) What does Jesus say they (religious leaders) have not done to Elijah? (vs 12)


15) What does Jesus say they (religious leaders) have done to Elijah? (vs 12)


16) What does Jesus say about himself? (vs 12)


17) What did the disciples understand? (vs 13)


Jesus Heals a Demon-Possessed Boy; Matthew 17:14-21

1) What happens as Jesus approaches a crowd? (vs 14)


2) What does the man ask Jesus? (vs 15)


3) What is wrong with the man’s son? (vs 15) (Note 113)


4) What does the man say that he has already done and what happened? (vs 16)

5) What does Jesus say? (vs 17) (Note 114)


6) What does Jesus say to the man? (vs 17)


7) What does Jesus do? (vs 18)


8) What does the demon do? (vs 18)


9) What happens to the boy? (vs 18)


10) What do the disciples as Jesus? (vs 19)


11) What does Jesus tell them? (vs 20)


12) How much faith does Jesus say they need? (vs 20)


13) What will they be able to do with a little faith? (vs 20) (Note 115)

Jesus predicts His Death a Second Time; Matthew 17:22-23

1) Where are Jesus and his disciples at? (vs 22)


2) What does Jesus tell his disciples? (vs 22-23)


3) How do the disciples respond? (vs 23)


Peter finds a Coin in a Fish’s Mouth; Matthew 17:24-27

1) Where do Jesus and the disciples go? (vs 24)


2) Who comes to Peter? (vs 24) (Note 116)


3) What do the tax collectors ask Peter? (vs 24)


4) How does Peter reply? (vs 25)


5) What question does Jesus ask Peter? (vs 25)


6) How does Peter answer Jesus? (vs 26)


7) What does Jesus say to Peter? (vs 26)


8) What does Jesus tell Peter to do? (vs 27)


9) What will Peter find in the fish’s mouth? (vs 27)


10) What is Peter to do with the coin? (vs 27)


The Disciples Argue about Who Would Be the Greatest; Matthew 18:1-6

1) What do the disciples ask Jesus? (vs 1)


2) What does Jesus do? (vs 2)


3) What does Jesus tell them? (vs 3)


4) Who does Jesus say is greatest in the kingdom of heaven? (vs 4)

5) Who does Jesus say welcomes him? (vs 5)


6) What does Jesus say about those who cause a little one who believes in him to sin? (vs 6) (Note 117)


Jesus Warns Against Temptation; Matthew 18:7-9

1) What does Jesus say about the world and why? (vs 7)


2) What does Jesus say about the things that cause people to sin? (vs 7)


3) What does Jesus say about the person through whom these things come? (vs 7)


4) What does Jesus say about your hand or your foot? (vs 8)


5) What does Jesus say is better? (vs 8)


6) What does Jesus say about your eye? (vs 9)


7) What does Jesus say is better? (vs 9)

Jesus Warns About Looking Down on Others; Matthew 18:10-14

1) What does Jesus tell them not to do? (vs 10)


2) Why should you not look down on the little ones? (vs 10)


3) Why does Jesus say that he has come? (vs 11) (Note 118)


4) What question does Jesus ask them about sheep? (vs 12)


5) What happens when the shepherd finds his lost sheep? (vs 13)


6) How does Jesus refer to God? (vs 14)


7) What is God not willing should happen? (vs 14)


Jesus Teaches How to Treat a Believer Who Sins; Matthew 18:15-20

1) What should you do if your brother sins against you? (vs 15) (119)


2) What happens if he listens to you? (vs 15)

3) What should you do if your brother will not listen to you? (vs 16)


4) Why should you take one or two others? (vs 16)


5) What should you do if he still refuses to listen? (vs 17)


6) What should be done if he refuses to listen to the church? (vs 17)


7) What does Jesus say about things bound on earth? (vs 18) (Note 120)


8) What does Jesus say about things loosed on earth? (vs 18)


9) What does Jesus say about two agreeing on anything? (vs 19)


10) What happens when two or three believers come together? (vs 20)


11) How must these two or three come together? (vs 20

The Parable of the Unforgiving Debtor Matthew 18:21-35

1) What question does Peter ask Jesus? (vs 21)


2) How does Jesus answer Peter? (vs 22)


3) What does Jesus say the kingdom of heaven is like? (vs 23)


4) Who is brought to the king first? (vs 24)


5) How much does the man owe the king? (vs 24)


6) What does the king say should happen to him and why? (vs 25)


7) What does the servant do and ask? (vs 26)


8) What does the king do? (vs 27)


9) What does the servant do when he goes out? (vs 28)


10) What does the servants fellow servant do? (vs 29)


11) What does the servant do? (vs 30)


12) What do the other servants do and why? (vs 31)


13) What does the master do? (vs 32)


14) What does the master call the servant? (vs 32)


15) What does the master say to the servant? (vs 32-33)


16) What does the master do to the servant? (vs 34)


17) What does Jesus say will happen to them if they do not forgive? (vs 35)


18) How does Jesus say they are to forgive? (vs 35)

Jesus Teaches About Marriage and Divorce; Matthew 19:1-12

1) Where does Jesus go next? (vs 1)


2) What does Jesus do to the crowds that followed him? (vs 2)


3) Who came to Jesus and why? (vs 3)


4) What do the Pharisees ask Jesus? (vs 3)


5) What question does Jesus ask the Pharisees? (vs 4)


6) How does Jesus say we were created? (vs 4)


7) What reason will a man leave his father and mother? (vs 5)


8) What shall the man and the woman become? (vs 5)


9) What does Jesus say about what God has joined together? (vs 6)

10) What question do they ask Jesus? (vs 7)


11) How does Jesus answer them? (vs 8)


12) What does Jesus say is the only reason for divorce? (vs 9)


13) What does Jesus say about remarriage after divorce? (vs 9)


14) What do the disciples say to Jesus? (vs 10) (Note 121)


15) Who does Jesus say can accept this word? (vs 11)


16) What does Jesus say about eunuchs? (vs 12)  (Note 122)


17) Why have some other men renounced marriage? (vs 12)


18) Who should accept this? (vs 12)

Jesus blesses Little Children; Matthew 19:13-15

1) Why are little children brought to Jesus? (vs 13)


2) What do the disciples do? (vs 13)


3) What does Jesus say to the disciples? (vs 14)


4) Who does Jesus say the kingdom of God belongs to? (vs 14)


5) What does Jesus do? (vs 15)


Jesus Speaks to the Rich Young Man; Matthew 19:16-30

1) What does a man ask Jesus? (vs 16)


2) What question does Jesus ask the man? (vs 17)


3) What does Jesus say is good? (vs 17)


4) What does Jesus tell the man he must do? (vs 17)


5) What does the man ask Jesus? (vs 18)


6) How does Jesus answer the man? (vs 19)


7) What does the man say to Jesus? (vs 20)


8) What does Jesus tell him to do if he wants to be perfect? (vs 21)


9) What will he have if he sells all he has? (vs 21)


10) What does Jesus tell him to do? (vs 21)


11) What does the man do and why? (vs 22)


12) What does Jesus tell his disciples? (vs 23)

13) What does Jesus say about a camel? (vs 24) (Note 123)


14) What do the disciples ask Jesus? (vs 25)


15) How does Jesus answer them? (vs 26)


16) What does Peter ask Jesus? (vs 27)


17) How does Jesus answer Peter? (vs 28)


18) What does Jesus those who have left anything for his sake will receive? (vs 29)


19) What does Jesus say about those who are first? (vs 30)


20) What does Jesus say about those who are last? (vs 30)


The Parable of the Workers Paid Equally; Matthew 20: 1-16

1) What is the kingdom of heaven like? (vs 1)

2) What does he agree to pay them? (vs 2) (Note 124)


3) What does the landowner find at third hour (about 9 AM)? (vs 3)


4) What does the landowner say to the men? (vs 4)


5) What does the landowner do at the sixth and ninth hours? (vs 5)


6) What does the landowner find at the eleventh hour and what does he ask them? (vs 6)


7) How do the men answer him? (vs 7)


8) What does the landowner say to them? (vs 7)


9) What does the landowner do in the evening? (vs 8)


10) What do those who came last receive for their work? (vs 9)

11) What did those who were hired first expect? (vs 10)


12) What did those who were hired first do? (vs 11)


13) What is their complaint? (vs 12)


14) What does the landowner say to them? (vs 13)


15) What does he tell them to do? (vs 14)


16) How does the landowner explain what he has done? (vs 14)


17)  What is the first question he asks them? (vs 15)


18) What is the second question he asks them? (vs 15)


19) What does Jesus say about the first and the last? (vs 16)

Jesus Predicts his death the Third Time; Matthew 20:17-19

1) Where is Jesus going? (vs 17)


2) What does Jesus do to the disciples? (vs 17)


3) What does Jesus tell them is going to happen to him? (vs 18)


4) What does Jesus say the chief priests and teachers of the Law will do? (vs 18)


5) What will the gentiles do to him? (vs 19)


6) What does Jesus say will happen on the third day? (vs 19)


Jesus Teaches about Serving Others; Matthew 20:20-28

1) Who comes to Jesus and why? (vs 20)


2) What does Jesus ask her? (vs 21)


3) What does she ask Jesus? (vs 21)


4) What does he say to her? (vs 22)


5) What does Jesus say to James and John? (vs 22)


6) How do they answer Jesus? (vs 22)


7) What does Jesus say to them? (vs 23)


8) Who does Jesus say will sit at his right and left? (vs 23)


9) How do the other disciples respond to James and John? (vs 24)


10) What does Jesus tell them about the Gentile leaders? (vs 25)


11) How does Jesus tell them it should be among them? (vs 26-27)

12) Why does Jesus say the Son of Man came? (vs 28)


Jesus Heals a Blind Beggar: Matthew 20:29-34

1) What town is Jesus leaving? (vs 29)


2) Who follows Jesus? (vs 29)


3) Who are sitting beside the road? (vs 30)


4) What do the two men do and why? (vs 30)


5) What does the crowd do? (vs 31)


6) How do the men respond to the crowd? (vs 31)


7) What does Jesus do? (vs 32)


8) What does Jesus ask the men? (vs 32)

9) How do the men answer Jesus? (vs 33)


10) What does Jesus do and why? (vs 34)


11) What happens to the men? (vs 34)


Jesus Rides into Jerusalem on a Donkey; Matthew 21:1-11

1) Where is Jesus going? (vs 1)


2) Where does Jesus stop? (vs 1)


3) Where does Jesus tell two of his disciples to go? (vs 2)


4) What does Jesus tell them they will find there? (vs 2)


5) What does Jesus tell the two disciples to do? (vs 2)


6) What does Jesus tell them to say if they are asked what they are doing? (vs 3)

7) What will be the person’s response? (vs 3)


8) Why are we told this took place? (vs 4)


9) What does Jesus tell them from Zechariah 9:9? (vs 5)


10) What do the disciples do? (vs 6-7)


11) What do the disciples place on the donkey? (vs 7)


12) What does Jesus do? (vs 7)


13) How is the crowd described? (vs 8)


14) What does the crowd do? (vs 8)


15) where is Jesus in the crowd? (vs 9)

16) What is the crown shouting? (vs 9)


17) What happens when Jesus enters Jerusalem? (vs 10)


18) What does the crowd say about Jesus? (vs 11)


Jesus Clears the Temple Again; Matthew 21:12-17

1) Where does Jesus go? (vs 12)


2) What does Jesus do in the temple? (vs 12)


3) What does Jesus say to the moneychangers and the sellers? (vs 13)


4) Who comes to Jesus in the temple? (vs 14)


5) Why did the religious leaders become upset? (vs 15)


6) What do the religious leaders ask Jesus? (vs 16)

7) How does Jesus answer the religious leaders? (vs 16)


8) Where does Jesus go? (vs 17)


Jesus tells the Disciples They Can Pray for Anything; Matthew 21:18-22

1) Where is Jesus going? (vs 18)


2) What does Jesus see beside of the road? (vs 19)


3) What does Jesus find on the fig tree? (vs 19) (Note 125)


4) What does Jesus say to the tree? (vs 19)


5) What happens to the tree? (vs 19)


6) How do the disciples respond and what do they say? (vs 20)


7) What does Jesus say to the disciples? (vs 21)

8) What does Jesus say they can also do? (vs 21)


9) What does Jesus say will happen if you believe? (vs 22)


The Religious Leaders Challenge Jesus’ Authority; Matthew 21:23-27

1) Where does Jesus go and what is he doing? (vs 23)


2) Who comes to him while he his teaching? (vs 23)


3) What questions do the chief priests and elders ask him? (vs 23)


4) How does Jesus answer their questions? (vs 24)


5) What question does Jesus ask them? (vs 25)


6) What do the chief priests and elders do? (vs 25)


7) What are they afraid of if they say from heaven? (vs 25)

8) What are they afraid of if they say from men? (vs 26)


9) How do they answer Jesus? (vs 27)


10) What does Jesus say to them? (vs 27)


Jesus Tells the Parable of the Two Sons; Matthew 21:28-32

1) How does Jesus start out this parable? (vs 28)


2) What does the man ask his first son to do? (vs 28)


3) How does the son answer? (vs 29)


4) What does the son do later? (vs 29)


5) What does the father say to the second son? (vs 30)


6) What does the second son say and do? (vs 30)

7) What does Jesus ask the Religious leaders? (vs 31)


8) How do the religious leaders answer Jesus? (vs 31)


9) What does Jesus tell them about tax collectors and prostitutes? (vs 31)


10) Why does Jesus tell them that this will happen? (vs 32)


11) What does Jesus say will happen even now? (vs 32)


The Parable of the Wicked Tenants; Matthew 21:33-46

1) What does Jesus tell them to do? (vs 33)


2) What does Jesus tell us the landowner did? (vs 33)


3) What does the landowner do with his vineyard? (vs 33)


4) What does the landowner do? (vs 33)

5) What does the landowner do at harvest time? (vs 34)


6) What do the tenants do to the servants? (vs 35)


7) What does the landowner do? (vs 36)


8) What do the tenants do? (vs 36)


9) What does the landowner do and why? (vs 37)


10) What do the tenants say when they see the landowner’s son? (vs 38)


11) What do the tenants do to the landowner’s son? (vs 39)


12) What question does Jesus ask them? (vs 40)


13) How do they answer Jesus? (vs 41)

14) What question does Jesus ask them? (vs 42)


15) What does Jesus tell them form Psalms 118? (vs 42)


16) What does Jesus say will be taken from them? (vs 43)


17) Who does Jesus say the Kingdom of God will be given to? (vs 43)


18) What will happen to he who falls on the stone? (vs 44)


19) What will happen to him on whom the stone falls? (vs 44)


20) What did the chief priests and the Pharisees realize? (vs 45)


21) What did the look for? (vs 46)


22) Why were they afraid of the crowd? (vs 46)

The Parable of the Wedding Feast; Matthew 22:1-14

1) How does Jesus speak to them? (vs 1)


2) What does Jesus say the kingdom of heaven is like? (vs 2)


3) What does the king do? (vs 3)


4) What do those who are invited do? (vs 3)


5) What does the king do next? (vs 4)


6) What does the king tell his servants to say? (vs 4)


7) What do some who were invited do? (vs 5)


8) What do some do to the king’s servants? (vs 6)


9) How does the king feel? (vs 7)

10) What does the king do? (vs 7)


11) What does the king say to his servants? (vs 8)


12) What does the king tell his servants to do? (vs 9)


13) What do the servants do? (vs 10)


14) What di the king notice when he came in? (vs 11)


15) What does the king ask the man? ( vs 12)


16) How does the man respond? (vs 12)


17) What does the king tell the attendants? (vs 13)


18) What does Jesus say about those invited and those chosen? (vs 14)


Religious Leaders Question Jesus about Paying Taxes; Mathew 22:15-22

1) What do the Pharisees plan to do? (vs 15)


2) Who do the Pharisees send to Jesus? ( vs 16) (Note 126)


3) What do they say to Jesus? (vs 16)


4) What question do they ask Jesus? (vs 17)


5) What does Jesus know about them? (vs 18)


6) What does Jesus call them? (vs 18)


7) What does Jesus ask them? (vs 18)


8) What does Jesus ask them to show him? (vs 19)


9) What two question does Jesus ask them about the coin? (vs 20)


10) How do they answer Jesus? (vs 21)


11) How does Jesus answer their original question? (vs 21)


12) How do they respond to Jesus’ answer? (vs 22)


Religious Leaders Question Jesus about the Resurrection; Matthew 22:23-33

1) Who comes to Jesus the same day? (vs 23)


2) What does Matthew tell us about the Sadducees? (vs 23)


3) What do they say about the Law of Moses? (vs 24)


4) What do they say about seven brothers? (vs 25-26)


5) What happens to the woman? (vs 27)


6) What question do they ask Jesus? (vs 28)


7) Why does Jesus tell them they are in error? (vs 29)


8) What does Jesus say about people at the resurrection? (vs 30)


9) What does Jesus say people will be like at the resurrection? (vs 30)


10) What does Jesus ask them about the resurrection? (vs 31)


11) What does Jesus say to them from Scripture? (vs 32)


12) What does Jesus tell them about God? (vs 32)


13) How do the crowds respond? (vs 33)


The Greatest Commandment; Matthew 22: 34-39

1) What do the Pharisees do when they hear about the Sadducees? (vs 34)


2) Who asks Jesus a question? (vs 35)


3) What question is asked of Jesus? (vs 36)


4) How does Jesus answer their question? (vs 37)


5) What does Jesus call this commandment? (vs 38)


6) What does Jesus say is the second greatest commandment? (vs 39)


7) What does Jesus say about these two commandments? (vs 40)


Religious Leaders Cannot Answer Jesus Question; Matthew 41-46

1) What question does Jesus ask the Pharisees? (vs 41-42)


2) How do they answer Jesus? (vs 42)


3) What question does Jesus ask them? (vs 43)


4) What does Jesus quote them from Psalm 110? (vs 44)


5) What question does Jesus ask them? (vs 45)


6) What happens to the Pharisees? (vs 46)


Jesus warns Against the Religious Leaders; Matthew 23:1-12

1) Who does Jesus speak to? (vs 1)


2) What does Jesus say about the teachers of the Law and the Pharisees? (vs 2) (Note 127)


3) What does Jesus say the people must do? (vs 3)


4) What does Jesus say the people should not do and why? (vs 3)


5) What does Jesus say they do to men and what does he mean? (vs 4)


6) What does Jesus say they are not willing to do? (vs 4)


7) Why do they do what they do? (vs 5)


6) What does Jesus say about their dress? (vs 5) (Note 128) (Note 129)


7) Where does Jesus say they like to sit? (vs 6)


8) How do they want to be greeted? (vs 7)


9) What does Jesus say they are not to be called? (vs 8)


10) why are the disciples not be called Rabbi? (vs 8)


11) What does Jesus say about calling someone father? (vs 9)


12 Why are they not to be called teacher? (vs 10)


13) Who does Jesus say will be the greatest? (vs 11)


14) What will happen to he who exalts himself? (vs 12)


15) What will happen to he who humbles himself? (vs 12)

Jesus condemns the Religious Leaders; Matthew 23:13-36

1) What does Jesus call the teachers of the Law and the Pharisees? (vs 13)


2) Why does Jesus say they are hypocrites? (vs 13)


3) What does Jesus say that they do not do? (vs 13)


4) What do they not let others do? (vs 13)


5) How does Jesus say that they treat Widows? (vs 14) (Note 130)


6) What do they do for show? (vs 14)


7) What does Jesus say that they do? (vs 15)


8) What does Jesus say becomes of the converts? (vs 15) (Note 131)


9) What does Jesus call the religious leaders? (vs 16)


10) What do the religious leaders say about swearing by the temple? (vs 16)


11) What do the religious leaders say about swearing by the gold of the temple? (vs 16)


12 What does Jesus call the religious leaders? (vs 17)


13) What question does Jesus ask them? (vs 17)


14) What do the religious leaders say about the alter? (vs 18)


15) What do the religious leaders say about the Gift on the alter? (vs 18)


16) What question does Jesus ask them? (vs 19)


17) What does Jesus say about the alter? (vs 20)


18) What does Jesus say about the temple? (vs  21)


19) What does Jesus say about swearing by heaven? (vs 22)

20) What does Jesus say the religious leaders give a tenth of? (vs 23)


21) What does Jesus say the religious leader neglect? (vs 23)


22) What does Jesus say that the religious leaders should have done? (vs 23)


23) What does Jesus say the religious leaders do? (vs 24)


24) What does Jesus say the religious leaders clean? (vs 25)


25) What does Jesus say the religious leaders are full of on the inside? (vs 25)


26) What does Jesus tell the religious leaders to do? (vs 26)


27) What does Jesus say the religious leaders are like? (vs 27)


28) Why does he tell them they are like whitewashed tombs? (vs 28)


29) What does Jesus say that the religious leaders do? (vs 29)

30) What do the religious leaders say to themselves? (vs 30)


31) What does Jesus say that the testify about themselves? (vs 31)


32) What does Jesus tell them to do?  (vs 32)


33) What does Jesus call the religious leaders? (vs 33)


34) What does Jesus ask them? (vs 33)


35) What does Jesus say he is sending them? (vs 34)


36) What does Jesus say the religious leaders will do to the people Jesus sends? (vs 34)


37) What does Jesus say will come upon them? (vs 35) (Note 132)


38) When does Jesus say that this will happen? (vs 36)


Jesus Grieves Over Jerusalem; Matthew 23: 37-39

1) What does Jesus say that Jerusalem has done? (vs 37)


2) What does Jesus say he has longed to do? (vs 37)


3) What illustration does Jesus use? (vs 37)


4) Why has Jesus not done this? (vs 37)


5) What does Jesus say about their house? (vs 38)


6) When does Jesus say they will see him again? (vs 39)


Jesus Tells About the Future; Matthew 24:1-25

1) What does Jesus do as he is walking away from the temple? (vs 1)


2) What does Jesus ask the disciples? (vs 2)


3) What does Jesus tell them is going to happen to the buildings


4) Where is Jesus at? (vs 3)


5) Who comes to Jesus and how? (vs 3)


6) What is the first question the disciples ask Jesus? (vs 3)


7) What is the second question the disciples ask Jesus? (vs 3)


8) What is the third question the disciples ask Jesus? (vs 3)


9) What does Jesus tell them to watch for? (vs 4)


10) What does Jesus say that many will do? (vs 5) (Note 132)


11 What will be the result of their claims? (vs 5)


12) What does Jesus say they will hear of? ( vs 6)


13) Why does Jesus tell them not to be alarmed? (vs 6)

14) What does Jesus say about kingdoms and nations? (vs 7)


15) What does Jesus say will happen in various places? (vs 7)


16) What does Jesus say that these are? (vs 8)


17) What does Jesus say will happen to believers? (vs 9)


18) What does Jesus say will happen at that time? (vs 10)


19) Who will appear and what will they do? (vs 11)


20) What does Jesus say will happen to the love of most? (vs 12)


21) Who will be saved? (vs 13)


22) When does Jesus say the end will come? (vs 14)


23) What does Jesus tell them that they will see and then understand? (vs 15) (Note 133)

24)  What are those in Judea to do? (vs 16)


25) What should no one on the roof of his house do? (vs 17)


26) What should the one in the field not do? (vs 18)


27) What does Jesus say about mothers and pregnant women? (vs 19)


28) What does Jesus say they should pray for? (vs 20)


29) What does Jesus say about the distress that is coming? (vs 21)


30) What does Jesus say about the length of those days? (vs 22)


31) What does Jesus say about seeing the Christ at that time? (vs 23)


32) Who does Jesus say will appear at that time? (vs 24)


33) What will the false Christ and the false prophets do? (vs 24)

34) What does Jesus say to them? (vs 25)


Jesus Tells Them About His Return; Matthew 24:26-35

1) What does Jesus tell them not to believe? (vs 26)


2) What does Jesus say the coming of the Son of Man will be like? (vs 27)


3) What does Jesus say about the dead bodies? (vs 28) (Note 134)


4) What does Jesus say about the heavens from Isaiah? (vs 29)


5) What does Jesus say they will see in the sky? (vs 30)


6) What does Jesus say they will do? (vs 39) (Note 135)


7) How will they see the Son of Man coming? (vs 30) (Note 136)


8) Who will Jesus send and how? (vs 31)(Note 137)


9) What will the angels do? (vs 31)


10) What does Jesus say they should learn from? (vs 32)


11) What does Jesus say they will know and when? (vs 33)


12) What does Jesus say will not happen before these signs have happened? (vs 34) (Note 138)


13) What will pass away? (vs 35)


14) What will remain? (vs 35)


Jesus Tells about Remaining  Watchful; Matthew 24:36-51

1) Who knows when the day of Jesus will come? (vs 36)


2)  What days will the days before the coming of Jesus be like? (vs 37)


3) What does Jesus say the days of Noah were like? (vs 38)


4) What does Jesus say the people of Noah’s day knew? (vs 39)


5) What will be like that? (vs 39)


6) What does Jesus say about two men? (vs 40)


7) What does Jesus say about two women? (vs 41)


8) What does Jesus tell People to do? (vs 42)


9) Why should people keep watch? (vs 42)


10) What does Jesus tell us we should understand? (vs 43)


11) How does Jesus say we should be? (vs 44)


12) Why should we be ready? (vs 44)


13) What question does Jesus ask them? (vs 45)

14) Who does Jesus say it will be good for? (vs 46)


15) What does Jesus say the master will do? (vs 47)


16) What does the wicked servant say to himself? (vs 48)


17) What does the wicked servant do? (vs 49)


18) What does Jesus say the master will do? (vs 50-51)


Parable of the Ten Virgins; Matthew 25:1-13

1) What does Jesus say the kingdom of heaven will be like? (vs 1)


2) How many were wise and how many foolish? (vs 2)


3) What did the foolish virgins do? (vs 3)


4) What did the wise virgins do? (vs 4)


5) What happens to the virgins and why? (vs 5)


6) What happens at midnight? (vs 6)


7) What do the virgins do? (vs 7)


8) What do the foolish say to the wise virgins? (vs 8)


9) How do the wise virgins answer the foolish virgins? (vs 9)


10) What happens while the foolish virgins were gone? (vs 10)


11) What happens later on? (vs 11)


12) How does the bridegroom answer the foolish virgins? (vs 12)


13) What does Jesus tell people to do? (vs 13)



Parable of the Loaned Money; Matthew 25: 14-30

1) What does a man, going on a journey do? (vs 14)


2) How much does the man give to each servant? (vs 15)


3) How does he decide how much to give each servant? (vs 15)


4) What does the man with the five talents do? (vs 16)


5) What does he gain? (vs 16)


6) What does the one with two talents gain? (vs 17)


7) What does the servant with one talent do? (vs 18)


8) How long is the master gone? (vs 19)


9) What does the master do when he comes back? (vs 19)


10) What does the first servant tell the master? (vs 20)


11) What does the master call the servant? (vs 21)


12) What does the master say to the servant? (vs 21)


13) What does the master ask the servant to share in? (vs 21)


14) What does the second servant say to the master? (vs 22)


15) What does the master call the servant? (vs 23)


16) What does the master say to the servant? (vs 23)


17) What does the master ask the servant to share in? (vs 23)


18) What does the third servant say about the master? (vs 24)


19) What does the servant tell the master? (vs 25)

20) What does the master call the servant? (vs 26)


21) What does the master say to the servant? (vs 26)


22) What does the master say the servant should have done? (vs 27)


23) What does the master have done? (vs 28)


24) What does Jesus say about those who have? (vs 29)


25) What does Jesus say about those who do not have? (vs 29)


26) What does the master call the servant? (vs 30)


27) What does the master command to be done to the servant? (vs 30)


Jesus Tells About the Final Judgement; Matthew 25:31-46

1) How will the Son of Man come? (vs 31)





VBS 2018 Planning Meeting

Please join us on Thursday, November 9th at 7pm for a Vacation Bible School Planning Meeting here at the church. Anyone who is interested in helping us out this year in any capacity is asked to attend! We hope to see you all there!

Ornament Exchange

We are having the Ornament Exchange on Monday, December 4th at 6pm at Country Cupboard. Please sign up to participate by November 26th, it is $10 per person. If you would like to exchange an ornament, please bring a wrapped one. See Diana or Kelly to pay.


Candy Making Information


The Candy Making Season is fast approaching here at Trinity United Methodist Winfield!!!

Candy Making Set-Up will be on October 21st.

We will be making candy the weeks of October 23rd & 30th.

We will be selling candy during the weeks of November 6th & 13th.

Any questions or if you would like to help out in ANY way please talk to Jerry Bolig.

UMCOR Collection Information

Items needed in a cleanup Bucket. you can bring any of these items to the church. you do not have to do a whole bucket you can just get some of the items. for those of you around the country, check with a local United Methodist Church they will be able to help you with where to take it.
Cleaning Kit Materials
• 5-gallon bucket with resealable lid
o Buckets from fast-food restaurants or bakeries can be used if washed and cleaned
o Do not use buckets that have stored chemicals such as paint or pool cleaner
o Advertisements on the outside are acceptable
• Liquid laundry detergent
o One 50-oz. or two 25-oz. bottle(s) only
• Liquid household cleaner
o 12‐16 oz. liquid cleaner that can be mixed with water
o No spray cleaners
• Dish soap
o 16‐28 oz. bottle any brand
• 1 can air freshener
o Aerosol or pump
• 1 insect repellant spray
o 6‐14 oz. aerosol or spray pump with protective cover
• 1 scrub brush
o Plastic or wooden handle
• 18 cleaning wipes
o Handi Wipes or reusable wipes
o No terry cleaning towels
o Remove from packaging
• 7 sponges
o No cellulose sponges due to mold issues
o Remove from wrapper
• 5 scouring pads
o Remove from wrapper
o No stainless steel, Brillo pads, or SOS pads (nothing with soap built in)
• 50 clothespins
• Clothesline
o One 100-ft. or two 50-ft. lines
o Cotton or plastic
• 24-roll heavy-duty trash bags
o 33‐ to 45-gallon sizes
o Remove from the box
• 5 dust masks
• 2 pairs kitchen dishwashing gloves
o Should be durable enough for multiple uses
o Remove from packaging
• 1 pair work gloves
o Cotton with leather palm or all leather
Assembly Directions
Place all liquid items in the bucket first. Place remaining items in the bucket, fitting them around and between the liquid items. Sponges, scouring pads, clothespins, and trash bags can be separated in order to fit all of the items in the bucket. Ensure the lid is closed securely.
Important Notes
• All items must be new except for the actual bucket and lid.
• All cleaning agents must be liquid and in plastic containers. No powders, please.
• If you cannot find the requested size of a liquid item, use a smaller size. Including larger sizes of any item will prevent the lid from sealing.
• If all of the items on the list are not included, please put a label on the bucket indicating what has been omitted.
Boost Post

Education & Missions

Here at Trinity United Methodist Church we nurture our faith with Christian Education.  Aside from our Sunday Worship Service, we also have various ministries and church activities to meet and bond with our brothers and sisters in Christ.

Our Activities include:

♥  Family Celebration

♥  Men’s Breakfast (Every other Saturday)

♥  Quilters Fellowship Group

♥  Church Picnics

♥  Family Game Night

♥  Christmas Caroling


Our 2017 Missions are:

  •  Transitions
  •  Boy Scouts (Troop 513)
  •  Expectations
  •  One Great Hour of Sharing
  •  Elijah’s Bowl
  •  Habitat of Humanity
  •  Kairos Ministry
  •  Gideons
  •  Volunteers in Mission
  •  Committee on Native American Ministries
  •  Adopt a Family
  •  World Hunger (UMCOR)
  •  Recreation
  •  Methodist Children’s Home
  •  Haven Ministries
  •  Wounded Warrior Families
  •  Mini Thon


Children’s Programs

☼  Children’s Choir

☼  Easter Egg Hunt

☼  Vacation Bible School

☼  Fall Family Fun Night

☼  Light the Night (An alternative to Halloween)

☼  Free Babysitting in December during Lewisburg’s Late Shopper night.

☼  Children’s Christmas Eve Service

☼  Children’s Message during Sunday Service

☼  Full Nursery available

  • A playground is available on the hill next to the pavilion.


╬ Matthew 19:14  Jesus said, ” Let the little children come to me, and do not hinder them, for the kingdom of Heaven belongs to such as these.”